Microchimica Acta

, 186:153 | Cite as

An origami paper-based electrochemical immunoassay for the C-reactive protein using a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with graphene and gold nanoparticles

  • Suchanat Boonkaew
  • Sudkate Chaiyo
  • Sakda Jampasa
  • Sirirat Rengpipat
  • Weena SiangprohEmail author
  • Orawon ChailapakulEmail author
Original Paper


An origami paper-based electrochemical immunoassay for C-reactive protein (CRP) detection is described. The assay integrates multiple steps of electrode modification into a single device. A graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (G/SPCE) was employed to enhance sensitivity. Gold nanoparticles were first electrodeposited onto the G/SPCE, followed by a self-assembled monolayer of L-cysteine. The capture anti-CRP was then covalently immobilized on the modified electrode. CRP was quantified by measuring the changes in the charge-transfer resistance of the electrode by using hexacyanoferrate as the redox probe. Cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy were also applied to verify the successful modification of the electrode. Under optimal conditions, impedance increase in the 0.05–100 μg mL−1 CRP concentration range, and the limit of detection is 15 ng mL−1 (at S/N = 3). The immunoassay was successfully applied to the determination of CRP in a certified human serum sample. This method is simple, low-cost, portable and disposable.

Graphical abstract

An origami paper-based analytical device (oPAD) is described that integrates the multistep of electrode modification, immobilization and detection into a single device. The direct conjugation between the capture antibody and target molecule was allowed to use in this system. The C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in serum samples was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.


Paper-based analytical device Immunodetection Screen-printed carbon electrode Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy 



This research was partially supported by The Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT) through High Performance and Smart Materials (HPSM) research program. The authors also thank the Thailand Research Fund through Research Team Promotion Grant (RTA6080002), the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund under Outstanding Research Performance Program (SciSuperIII) and the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund of Chulalongkorn University for additional supports.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3245_MOESM1_ESM.doc (5.7 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 5.69 mb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suchanat Boonkaew
    • 1
  • Sudkate Chaiyo
    • 1
  • Sakda Jampasa
    • 2
  • Sirirat Rengpipat
    • 3
  • Weena Siangproh
    • 4
    Email author
  • Orawon Chailapakul
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Center of Excellence (EOSCE), Department of ChemistryChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Metallurgy and Materials Science Research InstituteChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceSrinakharinwirot UniversityBangkokThailand
  5. 5.Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials TechnologyChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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