Microchimica Acta

, 186:139 | Cite as

Covalent hyperbranched porous carbon nanospheres as a polymeric stationary phase for ion chromatography

  • Qiming ZhaoEmail author
  • Xinyue Miao
  • Jianan Yu
  • Yan ZhuEmail author
Original Paper


This work presents a method for covalent quaternization of porous carbon nanospheres (PCNSs) and their application as anion exchanging stationary phase for ion chromatography. The PCNSs were covalently quaternized via the dehydration condensation between surface carboxyl groups and polyethyleneimine. This was followed by a repeated epoxy-amine addition reaction with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. As a result, surface methylamino groups are formed. The electrostatic interaction between quaternized PCNSs and sulfonated poly(polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene) resulted in the formation of an agglomerated stationary phase. The capacities (41.5–90.2 μequiv) and pressures (540–1150 psi) of column packed with novel phases (100 × 4.0 mm i.d.) were further increased with grafted polymer layer counts (2–5). Common inorganic anions, small organic acids and saccharides were rapidly separated on the new phases. The column efficiencies for seven inorganic anions ranged from 38,400 to 13,200 plates m−1. Through 8 days of flushing test, the RSD values for retention time and efficiencies varied from 0.56% to 1.32%, and from 0.34% to 0.74%, respectively.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of the covalent modification of porous carbon nanospheres (PCNSs) with hyperbranched quaternized polymers via the amidation and epoxy-amine addition reaction was depicted. Functionalized PCNSs were further applied as agglomerated materials of polymeric stationary phase for ion chromatography (IC).


Agglomerated anion exchangers Covalent modification Fast separation Hydrophilicity Organic acids Saccharides 



This work was subsidized by Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. LZ16B050001), the Research Project (No. 2018ZR08) of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University and Opening Project of Zhejiang Provincial First-rate Subject (Chinese Traditional Medicine), Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (No. Ya2017009, ZYAOX2018026).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3243_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1645 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Pharmaceutical ScienceZhejiang Chinese Medical UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Xixi CampusZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

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