Microchimica Acta

, 186:8 | Cite as

Amperometric sensing of nitrite at nanomolar concentrations by using carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with titanium nitride nanoparticles

  • Muthaiah Annalakshmi
  • Paramasivam Balasubramanian
  • Shen-Ming ChenEmail author
  • Tse-Wei Chen
Original Paper


A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a nanocomposite prepared from carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) and titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles to obtain a sensor for nitrite. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies results show the modified GCE to possess a low electrochemical resistance (Rct = 7 Ω) and a large electroactive surface (A = 0.112 cm2). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate (ks) is found to be 1.26 × 10−2 cm s−1. Due to the excellent synergistic effect of c-MWCNT and TiN, the GCE displays and excellent performance in terms of nitrite sensing. At a typical working voltage of +0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the limit of detection (LOD) is as low as 4 nM, and the useful analytical range extends from 6 nM to 950 μM. This is much better than the LODs of previously reported nitrite sensors. The sensor is fast (response time 4 s), selective, and long-term stable. It was applied to the determination of nitrite in spiked water and meat samples and gave good recoveries.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of electrochemical determination of nitrite using carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with titanium nitride nanoparticles modified electrode.


Inorganic pollutants Methemoglobinemia Heterogeneous electron transfer rate Low impedance Electrochemical sensor 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan through contract no. MOST 107-2113-M-027-005-MY3.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_3136_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1032 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiRepublic of China
  2. 2.Research and Development Center for Smart Textile TechnologyNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiRepublic of China

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