Microchimica Acta

, 186:12 | Cite as

A carbon paste electrode modified with a nickel titanate nanoceramic for simultaneous voltammetric determination of ortho- and para-hydroxybenzoic acids

  • Fahimeh Zeraatkar Kashani
  • Sayed Mehdi Ghoreishi
  • Asma Khoobi
  • Morteza Enhessari
Original Paper


An electrochemical sensor is described for the simultaneous determination of ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (OHB) and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB). The sensor consists of a carbon paste electrode modified with nickel titanate nanoceramics (NiTiO3/CPE). The NiTiO3 nanoceramics and the nanostructured modified CPE were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Differential pulse voltammetry indicates that the response to OHB (best measured at 0.90 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and PHB (measured at 0.80 V vs. Ag/AgCl) is significantly improved at the modified CPE compared to a bare CPE. The limits of detection (at S/N = 3) are 0.38 and 0.10 μM for OHB and PHB, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of the two isomers in peeling skin lotion and during the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.

Graphical abstract

Nickel titanate nanoceramics (NiTiO3) were synthesized by a sol-gel method. Then, a carbon paste electrode modified with NiTiO3 (NiTiO3/CPE) was constructed. The modified electrode was applied to the interference-free and simultaneous determination of ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (OHB) and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB).


Nanostructured sensor Interference-free determination Monohydroxy benzoic acid isomers Salicylic acid Microscopic and electrochemical techniques 



The authors are grateful to University of Kashan for supporting this work by grant no. 211037-28.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_3113_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1342 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fahimeh Zeraatkar Kashani
    • 1
  • Sayed Mehdi Ghoreishi
    • 1
  • Asma Khoobi
    • 1
  • Morteza Enhessari
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of KashanKashanIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryIslamic Azad UniversityNaraghIran

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