Microchimica Acta

, 186:50 | Cite as

Optical, electrochemical and catalytic methods for in-vitro diagnosis using carbonaceous nanoparticles: a review

  • Yi Wang
  • Yunsheng XiaEmail author
Review Paper


This review (with 261 refs.) summarizes the progress that has been made in the field of in-vitro diagnosis using carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs). Signal readout is mostly based on fluorometry, electrochemistry and colorimetry. Following an introduction, the next two sections cover methods for the fabrication and separation of CNPs. This is followed by sections on (a) fluorometric methods, (b) electrochemical methods, and (c) colorimetric methods for detecting various analytes. Several subsections discuss detection schemes for analytes such as metal ions, pH value, reactive oxygen species, small biogenic molecules (for example glucose, ascorbic acid, amino acids, dopamine), and biomacromolecules (such as enzymes, cancer markers, DNA). A further section discusses methods based on the peroxidase-like activity of CNPs, and how they can be employed for the determination of species such as glucose, cholesterol, glutathione, and uric acid via H2O2-based chromogenic methods. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives in this research area are discussed.

Graphical abstract

A review is presented on the progress that has been made in recent years in sensing platforms for in-vitro diagnosis using carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs). Signal readout is mostly based on fluorometry, electrochemistry and colorimetry, respectively. Besides, the fabrication and separation strategies of CNPs are also demonstrated.


Fluorometry Electroanalysis Colorimetry Fabrication Separation C-dots Graphene quantum dots Carbon quantum dots Carbon nanotubes Graphene 



This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21775004 and 21422501), Wanjiang Scholar program, and Foundation for Innovation Team of Bioanalytical Chemistry.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials ScienceAnhui Normal UniversityWuhuChina
  2. 2.College of Resources and EnvironmentAnqing Normal UniversityAnqingChina

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