Galvanic displacement-induced codeposition of reduced-graphene-oxide/silver on alloy fibers for non-destructive SPME@SERS analysis of antibiotics
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This work describes the integration of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by codeposition of a hybrid consisting of reduced graphene oxide and silver on silver-copper alloy fibers. The morphology and structure of the coating were characterized by a variety of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques that confirmed the hybrid structure of the material. A galvanic-displacement-induced process is assumed to be involved during the codeposition of the hybrid coating on the alloy. In this process, Ag(I) is reduced to Ag(0) by Cu(0), and the presence of conjugated domains in GO facilitates the long-range transfer of electrons from Cu to Ag+. Simultaneously, GO accepts electrons and is converted into RGO. The hybrid coating exhibits a high SERS enhancement factor and good spatial uniformity. The needle-like coated alloy fibers are shown to be a viable tool for non-destructive sampling and SERS-based determination of trace levels of the antibiotics sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in a spiked tissue mimic. The SERS peaks at 1149 cm−1 for sulfadiazine and 1144 cm−1 for sulfamethoxazole are selected as the reference peaks in the quantitative analysis. The linear range is from 0.01 to 100 μg·cm−3. The detection limits are 1.9 ng·cm−3 for sulfadiazine and 4.4 ng·cm−3 for sulfamethoxazole.
KeywordsMicroextraction Solid-phase microextraction Raman spectroscopy Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy Integrated analysis Molecular dynamic simulation Spiked tissue mimic Sulfadiazine Sulfamethoxazole Sulfonamide antibiotic
This study was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (ZR2017BH001 and ZR2017ZC0227), the Projects of Medical and Health Technology Development Program in Shandong Province (2016WS0544), the Science and Technology Program of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences (2016-36), Shandong Provincial Quality Supervision System Technology Project (2017ky05z08), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81872575, 21575077 and 21750110438), the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University (2016JC030), and the Innovation Project of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences.
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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