Microchimica Acta

, 185:558 | Cite as

A glassy carbon electrode with electrodeposited silver nanoparticles for aptamer based voltammetric determination of trinitrotoluene using riboflavin as a redox probe

  • Mahmoud RoushaniEmail author
  • Faezeh Shahdost-fardEmail author
Original Paper


An electrochemical nanoaptasensor is described that is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with electrodeposited silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). An aptamer (Apt) against trinitrotoluene (TNT) was then immobilized on the AgNPs. The addition of TNT to the modified GCE leads to decrease in peak current (typically measured at a potential of −0.45 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of riboflavin which acts as an electrochemical probe. Even small changes in the surface (as induced by binding of Apt to TNT) alter the interfacial properties. As a result, the LOD is lowered to 33 aM, and the dynamic range extends from 0.1 fM to 10 μM without sacrificing specificity.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of a nanoaptasensor which is based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with electrodeposited silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and aptamer (Apt). It was applied to the detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) with the help of riboflavin (RF) as a redox probe.


TNT Aptasensor AgNPs Electrodeposition Aptasensig assay 



This work was funded by Ilam University and the financial support of this University is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_3098_MOESM1_ESM.docx (468 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 467 kb)


  1. 1.
    Iliuk AB, Hu L, Tao WA (2011) Aptamer in bioanalytical applications. Anal Chem 83:4440–4452PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roushani M, Shahdost-fard F (2015) Fabrication of an ultrasensitive ibuprofen nanoaptasensor based on covalent attachment of aptamer to electrochemically deposited gold-nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode. Talanta 144:510–516Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roushani M, Shahdost-fard F (2018) Impedimetric detection of cocaine by using an aptamer attached to a screen printed electrode modified with a dendrimer/silver nanoparticle nanocomposite. Microchim Acta 185:214–220Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu YM, Shi GF, Zhang JJ, Zhou M, Cao JT, Huang KJ, Ren SW (2014) A novel label-free electrochemiluminescence aptasensor based on layered flowerlike molybdenum sulfide-graphene nanocomposites as matrix. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 122:287–293Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang C, Wang Q, Xiang Y, Yuan R, Chai Y (2014) Target-induced strand release and thionine-decorated gold nanoparticle amplification labels for sensitive electrochemical aptamer-based sensing of small molecules. Sensors Actuators B Chem 197:149–154Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heydari-Bafrooei E, Amini M, Hatefi Ardakani M (2016) An electrochemical aptasensor based on TiO2/MWCNT and a novel synthesized Schiff base nanocomposite for the ultrasensitive detection of thrombin. Biosens Bioelectron 85:828–836Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Erdem A, Eksin E, Muti M (2014) Chitosan–graphene oxide based aptasensor for the impedimetric detection of lysozyme. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 115:205–211Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu J, Bo X, Zhao Z, Guo L (2015) Highly exposed Pt nanoparticles supported on porous graphene for electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide in living cells. Biosens Bioelectron 74:71–77Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gao YS, Wu LP, Zhang KX, Xu JK, Lu LM, Zhu XF, Wu Y (2015) Electroanalytical method for determination of shikonin based on the enhancement effect of cyclodextrin functionalized carbon nanotubes. Chin Chem Lett 26:613–618Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abbasi N, Shahbazi P, Kiani A (2013) Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol at Pd/Ag nanodendrites prepared via low support electrodeposition and galvanic replacement. J Mater Chem A1:9966–9972Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shahdost-fard F, Salimi A, Khezrian S (2014) Highly selective and sensitive adenosine aptasensor based on platinum nanoparticles as catalytical label for amplified detection of biorecognition events through H2O2 reduction. Biosens Bioelectron 53:355–362Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laibinis PE, Whitesides GM, Allara DL, Tao YT, Parikh AN, Nuzzo RG (1991) Comparison of the structures and wetting properties of self-assembled monolayers of n- Alkanethiols on the coinage metal surfaces, Cu, Ag, Au. J Am Chem Soc 113:7152–7167Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yu L, Shi Y, Zhao Z, Yin H, Wei Y, Liu J, Kang W, Jiang T, Wang A (2011) Ultrasmall silver nanoparticles supported on silica and their catalytic performances for carbon monoxide oxidation. Catal Commun 12:616–620Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roushani M, Shahdost-fard F (2015) A novel ultrasensitive aptasensor based on silver nanoparticles measured via enhanced voltammetric response of electrochemical reduction of riboflavin as redox probe for cocaine detection. Sensors Actuators B Chem 207:764–771Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zanella R, Giorgio S, Shin CH, Henry CR, Louis C (2004) Characterization and reactivity in CO oxidation of gold nanoparticles supported on TiO2 prepared by deposition-precipitation with NaOH and urea. J Catal 222:357–367Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moreau F, Bond GC, Taylor AO (2005) Gold on titania catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide: control of pH during preparation with various gold contents. J Catal 231:105–114Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang G, Sun S, Banis MN, Li R, Cai M, Sun X (2011) Morphology-controlled green synthesis of single crystalline silver dendrites, dendritic flowers, and rods, and their growth mechanism. Cryst Growth Des 11:2493–2499Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nie D, Jiang D, Zhang D, Liang Y, Xue Y, Zhou T, Jin L, Shi G (2011) Two-dimensional molecular imprinting approach for the electrochemical detection of trinitrotoluene. Sensors Actuators B Chem 156:43–49Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xia Y, Song L, Zhu C (2011) Turn-on and near-infrared fluorescent sensing for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on hybrid (gold nanorod)−(quantum dots) assembly. Anal Chem 83:1401–1407Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alizadeh T (2014) Preparation of magnetic TNT-imprinted polymer nanoparticles and their accumulation onto magnetic carbon paste electrode for TNT determination. Biosens Bioelectron 61:532–540Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aparna RS, Anjali Devi JS, Sachidanandan P, George S (2018) Polyethylene imine capped copper nanoclusters fluorescent and colorimetric onsite sensor for the trace level detection of TNT. Sensors Actuators B Chem 254:811–819Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang J, Muto M, Yatabe R, Tahara Y, Onodera T, Tanaka M, Okochi M, Toko K (2018) Highly selective rational design of peptide-based surface plasmon resonance sensor for direct determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. Sensors Actuators B Chem 264:279–284Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shi JJ, Meng LX, Yang P (2017) Ultrasensitive determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by exploiting the strongly enhanced electrochemiluminescence of an assembly between CdSe and graphene quantum dots and its quenching by TNT. Microchim Acta 184:73–80Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holthoff EL, Stratiscullum DN, Hankus ME (2011) A nanosensor for TNT detection based on molecularly imprinted polymers and surface enhanced raman scattering. Sensors 11:2700–2714Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ma Y, Wang L (2014) Upconversion luminescence nanosensor for TNT selective and label-free quantification in the mixture of nitroaromatic explosives. Talanta 120:100–105Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Feng L, Li H, Qu Y, Lü C (2012) Detection of TNT based on conjugated polymer encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles through FRET. Chem Commun 48:4633–4635Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shahdost-fard F, Roushani M (2017) Designing an ultra-sensitive aptasensor based on an AgNPs/thiol-GQD nanocomposite for TNT detection at femtomolar levels using the electrochemical oxidation of Rutin as a redox probe. Biosens Bioelectron 87:724–731Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sabherwal P, Shorie M, Pathania P, Chaudhary S, Bhasin KK, Bhalla V, Raman SC (2014) Hybrid aptamer-antibody linked fluorescence resonance energy transfer based detection of trinitrotoluene. Anal Chem 86:7200–7204Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shahdost-fard F, Roushani M (2017) The use of a signal amplification strategy for the fabrication of a TNT impedimetric nanoaptasensor based on electrodeposited NiONPs immobilized onto a GCE surface. Sensors Actuators B Chem 246:848–853Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hartley AM, Wilson GS (1966) Unusual adsorption effects in the electrochemical reduction of flavin mononucleotide at mercury electrodes. Anal Chem 38:681–687Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ho MY, D’Souza N, Migliorato P (2012) Electrochemical aptamer-based sandwich assays for the detection of explosives. Anal Chem 84:4245–4247Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yang W, Cheng Y, Xu T, Wang X, Wen LG (2009) Targeting cancer cells with biotin–dendrimer conjugates. Eur J Med Chem 44:862–868Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yao Z, Yang X, Wu F, Wu W, Wu F (2016) Synthesis of differently sized silver nanoparticles on a screen-printed electrode sensitized with a nanocomposites consisting of reduced graphene oxide and cerium (IV) oxide for nonenzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Microchim Acta 183:2799–2806Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIlam UniversityIlamIran

Personalised recommendations