A highly stable black phosphorene nanocomposite for voltammetric detection of clenbuterol
A nanocomposite was prepared from graphene-like two-dimensional black phosphorene (BP, an allotrope of phosphorus) and nafion (Nf) treated with isopropanol (IP). A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with this nanocomposite was found to be a viable sensor for voltammetric determination of clenbuterol (CLB). Unlike previously reported pure BP, the BP nanocomposite was stable towards water and oxygen. Its morphology, structure, electrochemically active surface area and electrochemical stability were investigated. The BP-Nf (IP) modified GCE displayed good electrochemical stability and electrocatalytic capacity with a low working potential of 0.94 V (vs. SCE), excellent peak current response for CLB in a linear concentration range of 0.06–24 μM with a detection limit of 3.7 nM (3σ/m) and a sensitivity of 0.14 μA·μM−1·cm−2 under optimal conditions. A sensing mechanism for the electro-oxidation of CLB was suggested and verified by density functional theory calculations under imitation of aqueous solution conditions. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of CLB in bovine meat and bovine serum samples.
KeywordsElectrochemical sensor β-Agonist Graphene analogue Sensing mechanism Theory calculations Electrochemical stability Edible cattle product
This study was funded by National Beef Cattle Industry Technology & System (CARS-38), National Natural Science Foundation of China (51662014), Outstanding Young Talent Program of Jiangxi Province (20171BCB23042), Fondecyt Chile Project Regular (1180023), Powered@NLHPC (ECM-02), Development and Nutrition of Feed for Beef Cattle in Guangchang County (09005392).
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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