Microchimica Acta

, 185:371 | Cite as

Hydrothermal and plasma nitrided electrospun carbon nanofibers for amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide

  • Yuan-Ping Lyu
  • Yi-Shan Wu
  • Tzu-Pei Wang
  • Chien-Liang LeeEmail author
  • Meng-Yin Chung
  • Chieh-Tsung LoEmail author
Short Communication


Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by an electrospinning method, this followed by a hydrothermal reaction or nitrogen plasma treatment to obtain electrode for non-enzymatic amperometric sensing of H2O2. The hydrothermally treated electrode performs better. Its electrochemical surface is 3.7 × 10−3 mA cm−2, which is larger than that of a nitrogen plasma treated electrode (8.9 × 10−4) or a non-doped CNF (2.45 × 10−4 mA cm−2). The hydrothermally treated CNF with rough surface and a complex profile with doped N has a higher sensitivity (357 μA∙mM−1∙cm−2), a lower detection limit (0.62 μM), and a wider linear range (0.01–0.71 mM) than N-CNFP at a working potential of −0.4 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The electrode gave high recoveries when applied to the analysis of milk samples spiked with H2O2.

Graphical abstract

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers prepared by an electrospinning method followed by a hydrothermal reaction (N-CNFht) or nitrogen plasma treatment (N-CNFP) are directly used as non-enzymatic amperometric H2O2 sensors.


Specific activity Cyclic voltammetry Hydrogen peroxide reduction reaction Electrochemical surface area X-ray photoelectron spectrum 



The authors thank the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, for financially supporting this research under Contract Nos. MOST 106-2221-E-151-039-MY3 and MOST 105-2628-E-006-009-MY3 as well as Mr. Shyne-Yen Yao at National Cheng Kung University and Mr. Hsien-Tsan Lin of Regional Instruments Center at National Sun Yat-Sen University for their assistance for TEM experiments.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_2915_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (745 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 745 kb)


  1. 1.
    Abbas ME, Luo W, Zhu LH, Zou J, Tang HQ (2010) Fluorometric determination of hydrogen peroxide in milk by using a Fenton reaction system. Food Chem 120(1):327–331. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mazzio EA, Soliman KFA (2004) Glioma cell antioxidant capacity relative to reactive oxygen species produced by dopamine. J Appl Toxicol 24(2):99–106. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Komazaki Y, Inoue T, Tanaka S (2001) Automated measurement system for H2O2 in the atmosphere by diffusion scrubber sampling and HPLC analysis of Ti(IV)-PAR-H2O2 complex. Analyst 126(5):587–593. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wei Y, Guo M (2007) Hydrogen peroxide triggered prochelator activation, subsequent metal chelation, and attenuation of the Fenton reaction. Angew Chem Int Ed 46(25):4722–4725. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen T-W, Palanisamy S, Chen S-M (2016) Non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a composite consisting of chitosan-encapsulated graphite and platinum nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 183(11):2861–2869. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang Y, Fu RZ, Yuan JJ, Wu SY, Zhang JL, Wang HY (2015) Highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles on carbon nanofiber heterostructures. Microchim Acta 182(13–14):2241–2249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sahin OG (2015) Microwave-assisted synthesis of PtAu@C based bimetallic nanocatalysts for non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor. Electrochim Acta 180:873–878. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mei H, Wu W, Yu B, Wu H, Wang S, Xia Q (2016) Nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor based on Fe@Pt core–shell nanoparticles for hydrogen peroxide, glucose and formaldehyde. Sensors Actuators B Chem 223:68–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noor AM, Shahid MM, Rameshkumar P, Huang NM (2015) A glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide. Microchim Acta 183(2):911–916.
  10. 10.
    Huang ZM, Zhang YZ, Kotaki M, Ramakrishna S (2003) A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 63(15):2223–2253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geng DS, Chen Y, Chen YG, Li YL, Li RY, Sun XL, Ye SY, Knights S (2011) High oxygen-reduction activity and durability of nitrogen-doped graphene. Energy Environ Sci 4(3):760–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qu LT, Liu Y, Baek JB, Dai LM (2010) Nitrogen-doped graphene as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. ACS Nano 4(3):1321–1326. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gong KP, Du F, Xia ZH, Durstock M, Dai LM (2009) Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays with high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction. Science 323(5915):760–764. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guo HL, Su P, Kang XF, Ning SK (2013) Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-doped graphene hydrogels by hydrothermal route with urea as reducing-doping agents. J Mater Chem A 1(6):2248–2255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ouyang B, Zhang YQ, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Fan HJ, Rawat RS (2016) Plasma surface functionalization induces nanostructuring and nitrogen-doping in carbon cloth with enhanced energy storage performance. J Mater Chem A 4(45):17801–17808. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen C, Lu Y, Ge YQ, Zhu JD, Jiang H, Li YQ, Hu Y, Zhang XW (2016) Synthesis of nitrogen-doped electrospun carbon nanofibers as anode material for high-performance sodium-ion batteries. Energy Technol 4(11):1440–1449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Panomsuwan G, Saito N, Ishizaki T (2015) Nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles derived from acrylonitrile plasma for electrochemical oxygen reduction. Phys Chem Chem Phys 17(9):6227–6232. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shin D, Jeong B, Mun BS, Jeon H, Shin HJ, Baik J, Lee J (2013) On the origin of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction on electrospun nitrogen-carbon species. J Phys Chem C 117(22):11619–11624. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jia Y, Zhang LZ, Du AJ, Gao GP, Chen J, Yan XC, Brown CL, Yao XD (2016) Defect graphene as a trifunctional catalyst for electrochemical reactions. Adv Mater 28(43):9532–9538. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang XJ, Li Y, Jin T, Meng J, Jiao LF, Zhu M, Chen J (2017) Electrospun thin-walled CuCo2O4@C nanotubes as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Nano Lett 17(12):7989–7994. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cullity BD, Stock SR (2001) Elements of X-ray diffraction, 3edn edn. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ibupoto ZH, Nafady A, Soomro RA, Sirajuddin SSTH, Abro MI, Willander M (2015) Glycine-assisted synthesis of NiO hollow cage-like nanostructures for sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensing. RSC Adv 5(24):18773–18781. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Desimoni E, Brunetti B (2013) Presenting analytical performances of electrochemical sensors. Some suggestions. Electroanal 25(7):1645–1651. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mao XW, Yang XQ, Rutledge GC, Hatton TA (2014) Ultra-wide-range electrochemical sensing using continuous electrospun carbon nanofibers with high densities of states. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(5):3394–3405. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shi L, Niu X, Liu T, Zhao H, Lan M (2015) Electrocatalytic sensing of hydrogen peroxide using a screen printed carbon electrode modified with nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons. Microchim Acta 182:2485–2493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ohgiyal S, Hoshino T, Okuyama H, Tanakal S, Ishizakil K (1999) Biotechnology of enzymes from cold-adapted microorganisms. Biotechnological Applications of Cold-Adapted Organisms, 1 edn. Speringer Heidelberg, GermanGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhu X, Niu XH, Zhao HL, Lan MB (2014) Doping ionic liquid into Prussian blue-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrode to enhance the nonenzymatic H2O2 sensing performance. Sensors Actuators B Chem 195:274–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang XP, Liu D, Yu B, You TY (2016) A novel nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on electrospun nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles-embedded carbon nanofibers film. Sensors Actuators B Chem 224:103–109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wu Q, Sheng QL, Zheng JB (2016) Nonenzymatic amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a sandwich-structured nanocomposite consisting of silver nanoparticles, Co3O4 and reduced graphene oxide. Microchim Acta 183(6):1943–1951. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hsu S-Y, Lee C-L (2017) Sonoelectrochemical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite for preparing defective few-layered graphene with promising activity for non-enzymatic H2O2 sensors. Microchim Acta 184(7):2489–2496. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wu Y-S, Liu Z-T, Wang T-P, Hsu S-Y, Lee C-L (2017) A comparison of nitrogen-doped sonoelectrochemical and chemical graphene nanosheets as hydrogen peroxide sensors. Ultrason Sonochem 42:659–664. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringNational Kaohsiung University of Science and TechnologyKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainan CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations