Microchimica Acta

, 185:149 | Cite as

On site visual detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis related periodontitis by using a magnetic-nanobead based assay for gingipains protease biomarkers

  • Sahar Alhogail
  • Ghadeer A. R. Y. Suaifan
  • Sergio Bizzarro
  • Wendy E. Kaman
  • Floris J. Bikker
  • Karina Weber
  • Dana Cialla-May
  • Jürgen Popp
  • Mohammed Zourob
Original Paper


Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a pathogen causing periodontitis. A rapid assay is described for the diagnosis of periodontal infections related to P. gingivalis. The method is making use of gingipains, a group of P. gingivalis specific proteases as a detection biomarker. Magnetic-nanobeads were labeled with gingipain-specific peptide substrates and immobilized on a gold biosensing platform via gold-thiol linkage. As a result of this, the color of the gold layer turns black. Upon cleavage of the immobilized substrates by gingipains, the magnetic-nanobeads-peptide fragments were attracted by a magnet so that the golden surface color becomes visible again. This assay is highly sensitive and specific. It is capable of detecting as little as 49 CFU·mL−1 of P. gingivalis within 30 s. Examination of periodontitis patients and healthy control saliva samples showed the potential of the assay. The simplicity and rapidity of the assay makes it an effective point-of-care device.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of the assay for the detection of P. gingivalis proteases as one of the promising biomarkers associated with periodontal diseases.


Porphyromonas gingivalis Periodontal diseases Colorimetric assay Magnetic nanoparticles Biosensor Gingivitis Diagnosis Point of care 


Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sahar Alhogail
    • 1
  • Ghadeer A. R. Y. Suaifan
    • 2
  • Sergio Bizzarro
    • 3
  • Wendy E. Kaman
    • 4
    • 5
  • Floris J. Bikker
    • 4
  • Karina Weber
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Dana Cialla-May
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Jürgen Popp
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Mohammed Zourob
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Medical Technology, College of Applied Medical SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of PharmacyThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry AmsterdamUniversity of Amsterdam and VU UniversityAmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Oral Biochemistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry AmsterdamUniversity of Amsterdam and VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of PhotonicsFriedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany
  7. 7.InfectoGnostics Research Campus Jena, Center for Applied ResearchJenaGermany
  8. 8.Leibniz Institute of Photonic TechnologyJenaGermany
  9. 9.Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  10. 10.Department of ChemistryAlfaisal UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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