Carbon nanotube-modified monolithic polymethacrylate pipette tips for (micro)solid-phase extraction of antidepressants from urine samples
- 388 Downloads
This work evaluates the potential of methacrylate monoliths with multi-walled carbon nanotubes incorporated into the polymeric network for the extraction of antidepressants from human urine. The method is based on a micropipette solid-phase extraction tip containing a hybrid monolithic material covalently attached to the polypropylene housing. A polymer layer made from poly(ethylene dimethacrylate) was bound to the inner surface of a polypropylene tip via UV grafting. The preparation of the monolith and the microextraction steps were optimized in terms of adsorption capacity. Limits of detection ranged from 9 to 15 μg·L−1. The average precision of the method varied between 3 and 5% (intra-tips), and from 4 to 14% (inter-tips). The accuracy of the method was evaluated through a recovery study by using spiked samples.
KeywordsCarbon nanoparticles Hybrid monolith Microextraction Porous polymer Photografting process UV attachment Drugs Liquid chromatography Biological samples
Financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (CTQ2014-52939-R and CTQ2014-52765-R) and PROMETEO/2016/145 (Conselleria de Educación, Investigación, Cultura y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana, Spain) is gratefully acknowledged. B. Fresco-Cala expresses her gratitude for the predoctoral grant (ref FPU13/03896) from the Spanish Ministry of Education.
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
- 1.Bridge JA, Iyengar S, Salary CB, Barbe RP, Birmaher B, Pincus HA, Ren L, Brent DA (2007) Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in pediatric antidepressant treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 297(15):1683–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Ito R, Ushiro M, Takahashi Y, Saito K, Ookubo T, Iwasaki Y, Nakazawa H (2011) Improvement and validation the method using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with in situ derivatization followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for determination of tricyclic antidepressants in human urine samples. J Chromatogr B 879(31):3714–3720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Jiménez-Soto JM, Lucena R, Cárdenas S, Valcárcel M (2010) Solid phase (micro)extraction tools based on carbon nanotubes and related nanostructures. In: Marulanda JM (ed) Carbon Nanotubes. InTech. https://doi.org/10.5772/39437
- 16.Es’haghi Z, Ebrahimi M, Hosseini M-S (2011) Optimization of a novel method for determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in hair and waste water samples by carbon nanotubes reinforced sol–gel based hollow fiber solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography using factorial experimental design. J Chromatogr A 1218(21):3400–3406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Wang X, Li X, Li Z, Zhang Y, Bai Y, Liu H (2014) Online coupling of in-tube solid-phase microextraction with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry for rapid determination of triazine herbicides in water using carbon-nanotubes-incorporated polymer monolith. Anal Chem 86(10):4739–4747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Jafari M, Sedghi R, Ebrahimzadeh H (2016) A platinum wire coated with a composite consisting of poly pyrrole and poly (ɛ-caprolactone) for solid phase microextraction of the antidepressant imipramine prior to its determination via ion mobility spectrometry. Microchim Acta 183(2):805–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Kamaruzaman S, Sanagi MM, Yahaya N, Wan Ibrahim WA, Endud S, Ibrahim W, Nazihah W (2017) Magnetic micro-solid-phase extraction based on magnetite-MCM-41 with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of antidepressant drugs in biological fluids. J Sep Sci 40(21):4222–4233CrossRefGoogle Scholar