Microchimica Acta

, Volume 184, Issue 10, pp 4073–4080 | Cite as

A dually functional 4-aminophenylboronic acid dimer for voltammetric detection of hypochlorite, glucose and fructose

  • Murugan Thiruppathi
  • Natarajan Thiyagarajan
  • Manavalan Gopinathan
  • Jen-Lin Chang
  • Jyh-Myng Zen
Original Paper


The authors report on the electrochemical process for the modification of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with an azo-functionalized dimer of 4-amino phenylboronic acid. The dimer is prepared on the surface of the SPCE through the formation of azo bond, and the presence of the dimer is confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and functional group specific sensing studies. Specifically, this unique dimer-modified electrode possesses dual functionalities (R–N=N-R’ and –B(OH)2) which makes its suitable for selective detection of hypochlorite (i.e., free chlorine) and sugar molecules (demonstrated for glucose and fructose), respectively. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant is 7.89 s−1 which indicates a fast electron transfer process at the dimer-modified SPCE. The sensor, operated at a voltage of typically 0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), gives a linear response in the 1 μM to 10 mM hypochlorite concentration range and has a sensitivity of 408.16 μA mM−1 cm−2 at neutral pH values. The catalytic rate constant is 49,872 M s−1 for free chlorine. By using hexacyanoferrate as an electrochemical probe and at a typical working voltage of 0.18 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the sensor displays a linear response in the 1 to 500 μM fructose and glucose concentration range, with detection limits (for S/N = 3) of 0.24 μM for fructose and 0.36 μM for glucose.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of an electrochemically dimerized 4-aminophenylboronic acid through azo-functionalization route on preanodized screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE*). It was designed for voltammetric sensing of glucose, fructose and hypochlorite using boronic acid and azo moieties, respectively.


Screen printed carbon electrode Flow injection Free chlorine Saccharide detection Electrochemical dimerization Fluoride-assisted polymerization 



The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2017_2440_MOESM1_ESM.docx (554 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 553 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murugan Thiruppathi
    • 1
  • Natarajan Thiyagarajan
    • 1
  • Manavalan Gopinathan
    • 1
  • Jen-Lin Chang
    • 1
  • Jyh-Myng Zen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan

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