Microchimica Acta

, Volume 184, Issue 1, pp 117–125 | Cite as

Aptamer-based impedimetric determination of the human blood clotting factor IX in serum using an interdigitated electrode modified with a ZnO nanolayer

  • Ong Chong Cheen
  • Subash C. B. GopinathEmail author
  • Veeradasan Perumal
  • M. K. Md Arshad
  • Thangavel Lakshmipriya
  • Yeng Chen
  • R. Haarindraprasad
  • Balakrishnan S. Rao
  • Uda Hashim
  • Kannaiyan Pandian
Original Paper


This article describes a sensitive impedimetric method for the determination of human blood coagulation factor IX protein (FIX) which is present in extremely low concentration in serum. An interdigitated electrode (IDE) whose surface was layered with zinc oxide was modified with two kinds of probes. One is an antibody, the other an aptamer against FIX. A comparative study between anti-FIX aptamer and anti-FIX antibody showed the aptamer to possess higher affinity for FIX. A sandwich aptamer assay was worked out by using the FIX-binding aptamer on the surface of the IDE. It has a detection limit as low as 10 pM which makes it 4 to 30-fold more sensitive than any other method reported for FIX. Moreover, to practice detection in clinical samples, FIX was detected from the human blood serum by spiking. In our perception, the sensitivity of the ZnO-modified IDE presented here makes it a promising tool for sensing clinically relevant analytes that are present in very low (sub-pM) concentrations.

Graphical Abstract


Coagulation Hemophilia Impedance Resistance analysis Factor IX Aptamer Monoclonal antibody Clotting 



Y. Chen thanks the support from High Impact Research grants - “MoE Grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOE/DENT/09” and “UM-MoHE HIR UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/MED/16/5”

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2016_2001_MOESM1_ESM.docx (714 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 714 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ong Chong Cheen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Subash C. B. Gopinath
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Veeradasan Perumal
    • 1
    • 4
  • M. K. Md Arshad
    • 1
  • Thangavel Lakshmipriya
    • 1
  • Yeng Chen
    • 5
    • 6
  • R. Haarindraprasad
    • 1
  • Balakrishnan S. Rao
    • 1
    • 7
  • Uda Hashim
    • 1
  • Kannaiyan Pandian
    • 8
  1. 1.Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia PerlisKangarMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia PerlisKangarMalaysia
  3. 3.School of Bioprocess EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisArauMalaysia
  4. 4.Centre of Innovative Nanostructure & Nanodevices (COINN)Universiti Teknologi PETRONASBandar Seri IskandarMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of Oral Biology & Craniofacial SciencesKuala LumpurMalaysia
  6. 6.Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Center (OCRCC), Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  7. 7.Fakulti Kejuruteraan dan Alam BinaUniversiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM)NilaiMalaysia
  8. 8.Department of Inorganic ChemistryUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

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