Voltammetric determination of paracetamol using a glassy carbon electrode modified with Prussian Blue and a molecularly imprinted polymer, and ratiometric read-out of two signals
- 732 Downloads
The authors report on a ratiometric electrochemical sensor for paracetamol (PR) which was fabricated by successively electropolymerizing a layer of Prussian blue (PB) and a layer of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIP) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The binding of PR molecules to the MIP has two effects: The first is an increase of the oxidation current for PR at 0.42 V (vs. SCE), and the second is a decrease in the current for PB (at 0.18 V) due to partial blocking of the channels which results in reduced electron transmissivity. Both currents, and in particular their ratio, can serve as analytical information. Under optimized conditions, the sensor displays enhanced sensitivity for PR in the 1.0 nM to 0.1 mM concentration range and a 0.53 nM lower limit of detection. The sensor was applied to the determination of PR in tablets and urines where it gave recoveries in the range between 94.6 and 104.9 %. This dual-signal (ratiometric) detection scheme (using electropolymerized Prussian Blue and analyte-specific MIP) in our perception has a wide scope in that it may be applied to numerous other electroactive species for which specific MIP can be made available.
KeywordsElectroanalysis Electropolymerization Paracetamol detection Cyclic voltammetry Differential pulse voltammetry Ratiometric sensor Recognition
We greatly appreciate the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21575003), Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation for Young Program (11040606Q35).
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
- 5.Shi HJ, Zhao GH,mailto: email@example.com Liu MC, Zhu ZL (2011) A novel photoelectrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer modified TiO2 nanotubes and its highly selective detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Electrochem Commun 13: 1404–1407Google Scholar
- 12.Rafael RC, Chaves SC, Ribeiro MMAC, Pascual-reguera MI, Molina-Díaz AJ (2015) Simultaneous determination of caffeine, paracetamol, and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection. J Sep Sci 38:1657–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Yang YK, Cao YY, Wang XM, Fang GZ, Wang S (2015) Prussian blue mediated amplification combined with signal enhancement of ordered mesoporous carbon for ultrasensitive and specific quantification of metolcarb by a three-dimensional molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor. Biosens Bioelectron 64:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Mao AR, Li HB, Jin DQ, Yu LY, Hu XY (2015) Fabrication of electrochemical sensor for paracetamol based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan–copper complex by self-assembly technique. Tanalta 144:252–257Google Scholar