Microchimica Acta

, Volume 183, Issue 3, pp 1123–1130 | Cite as

Voltammetric determination of ultratrace levels of cerium(III) using a carbon paste electrode modified with nano-sized cerium-imprinted polymer and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

  • Taher AlizadehEmail author
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
  • Maede Akhoundian
  • Parviz Norouzi
Original Paper


A carbon paste electrode was modified with a Ce(III)-imprinted polymer (Ce-IP) and used for voltammetric determination of Ce(III) ions in real water samples. Precipitation polymerization was used for synthesis of the nano-sized Ce-IP from vinylpyridine and methacrylic acid (acting as the complexing ligands and functional monomers), divinylbenzene (cross-linker) and AIBN as the radical starter. The Ce-IP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and zeta potentials. A carbon paste electrode (CPE) was then impregnated with the Ce-IP and used for the extraction and subsequent determination of Ce(III). Oxidative square wave voltammetry showed the electrode to give a significantly better response than an electrode modified with the non-imprinted polymer. The addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the Ce-IP-modified electrode further improves the signal, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the method. The effects of electrode composition, extraction pH value, volume and time were optimized. The electrode, if operated at a voltage of 1.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), displays a linear response to Ce(III) in the 1.0 μM to 25 pM concentration range, and the detection limit is 10 pM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation of 5 separate determinations is 3.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Ce(III) in the spiked samples of drinking water and sea water.

Graphical abstract

A carbon paste electrode was modified with Ce-imprinted polymer and multiwalled carbon nanotube (Ce-IP-CNT-CP), and then utilized for the extraction of Ce(III) prior to its electroanalysis by square wave voltammety (SWV).


Square wave voltammetry Ion imprinted polymer Nanomaterial Precipitation polymerization Scanning electron microscopy Zeta potential 

Supplementary material

604_2015_1702_MOESM1_ESM.doc (58 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 57 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taher Alizadeh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
    • 1
  • Maede Akhoundian
    • 1
  • Parviz Norouzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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