Microchimica Acta

, Volume 183, Issue 1, pp 157–165 | Cite as

Oleate functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in juices

  • Rosa Ana Pérez
  • Beatriz Albero
  • José Luis Tadeo
  • Consuelo Sánchez-BruneteEmail author
Original Paper


Magnetic oleate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were applied to the extraction of PCBs from fruit juices that were quantified by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Two methods were evaluated: The first method involves a two-step procedure that combines dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with dispersive micro-solid phase extraction, and the second one involves magnetic solid-phase extraction (mSPE) carried out in a single step. The mSPE procedure is shown to be more sensitive, and therefore, it was optimized and applied to the analysis of PCBs in juices. The detection limits for all target PCBs are below 6 ng∙L−1 for apple juice, and 3 ng∙L−1 for grape juice. The enrichment factor is 125. Analysis of spiked fruit juice samples gave relative recoveries higher than 70 % for all PCBs except for PCB28 and PCB52.

Graphical Abstract

Diagram of the extractive methods using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs): A) two-step method combining dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) and B) one-step magnetic solid-phase extraction (mSPE) procedure


Magnetic solid-phase extraction Magnetic nanoparticles Gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry Oleate coating Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction 



This study was financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation-National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology, INIA, Project number “RTA 2011-00047-00-00”. Authors wish to express their gratefulness to Dr. M.P. Morales, researcher of the Department of Biomaterials and Bioinspired Materials, and to the Scientific Technical Services of Infrared Spectroscopy (ICMM; CSIC) for her help and advice in the characterization of the MNPs and for the IR analysis, respectively. David Ibarra (INIA-CIFOR) is greatly acknowledged for FTIR analysis.

Supplementary material

604_2015_1617_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1363 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Ana Pérez
    • 1
  • Beatriz Albero
    • 1
  • José Luis Tadeo
    • 1
  • Consuelo Sánchez-Brunete
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Medio AmbienteInstituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA)MadridSpain

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