Microchimica Acta

, Volume 182, Issue 5–6, pp 975–983 | Cite as

Detection of cardiac biomarker proteins using a disposable based on a molecularly imprinted polymer grafted onto graphite

  • Felismina T. C. Moreira
  • Sanjiv Sharma
  • Rosa A. F. Dutra
  • João P. C. Noronha
  • Anthony E. G. Cass
  • M. Goreti F. SalesEmail author
Original Paper


A low-cost disposable was developed for rapid detection of the protein biomarker myoglobin (Myo) as a model analyte. A screen printed electrode was modified with a molecularly imprinted material grafted on a graphite support and incorporated in a matrix composed of poly(vinyl chloride) and the plasticizer o-nitrophenyloctyl ether. The protein-imprinted material (PIM) was produced by growing a reticulated polymer around a protein template. This is followed by radical polymerization of 4-styrenesulfonic acid, 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The polymeric layer was then covalently bound to the graphitic support, and Myo was added during the imprinting stage to act as a template. Non-imprinted control materials (CM) were also prepared by omitting the Myo template. Morphological and structural analysis of PIM and CM by FTIR, Raman, and SEM/EDC microscopies confirmed the modification of the graphite support. The analytical performance of the SPE was assessed by square wave voltammetry. The average limit of detection is 0.79 μg of Myo per mL, and the slope is −0.193 ± 0.006 μA per decade. The SPE-CM cannot detect such low levels of Myo but gives a linear response at above 7.2 μg · mL−1, with a slope of −0.719 ± 0.02 μA per decade. Interference studies with hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, creatinine, and sodium chloride demonstrated good selectivity for Myo. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Myo urine and is conceived to be a promising tool for screening Myo in point-of-care patients with ischemia.

Graphical Abstract

A disposable biosensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer grafted onto graphite


Protein imprinting Screen-printed electrodes Cardiac biomarker Myoglobin Biosensor Potentiometry 



One of the authors (FTCM) gratefully acknowledges Fundação para a Ciência e Technologia for the financial support (PhD grant reference SFRH/BD/66735/2009).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felismina T. C. Moreira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sanjiv Sharma
    • 3
  • Rosa A. F. Dutra
    • 4
  • João P. C. Noronha
    • 2
  • Anthony E. G. Cass
    • 3
  • M. Goreti F. Sales
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEPSchool of Engineering of the Polytechnic Institute of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.REQUIMTE/FCT-UNL, Faculdade de Ciências e TecnologiaUniversidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry & Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial CollegeLondonUK
  4. 4.Biomed Engineering LaboratoryUniv Fed PernambucoRecifeBrazil

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