Microchimica Acta

, Volume 182, Issue 5–6, pp 985–993 | Cite as

Profiling of oxygen in biofilms using individually addressable disk microelectrodes on a microfabricated needle

  • Ana Moya
  • Xavier Guimerà
  • Francisco Javier del Campo
  • Elisabet Prats-Alfonso
  • Antonio David Dorado
  • Mireia Baeza
  • Rosa Villa
  • David Gabriel
  • Xavier Gamisans
  • Gemma Gabriel
Original Paper


A novel microelectrode array sensor was fabricated using MEMS technology on a needle, and then applied to real-time measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) inside biofilms. The sensor consists of eleven gold disk microelectrodes, a rectangular auxiliary electrode along them, and an external and internal reference electrode. Three kinds of sensors were designed and their responses were characterized and evaluated under various conditions. The arrays exhibit a linear response to DO in the 0–8 mg·L−1 concentration range in water, high sensitivity, repeatability, and low limits of detection (<0.11 mg·L−1 of DO) and quantification (0.38 mg·L−1 DO). The sensors were validated against a commercial Clark-type microelectrode and applied to profiling of DO in a heterotrophic biofilm cultivated in a flat-plate bioreactor. It is shown that the sensor array can provide a multipoint, simultaneous snapshot profile of DO inside a biofilm with high spatial resolution due to its micrometric dimensions. We conclude that this new sensor array represents a powerful tool for sensing of DO biofilms and in numerous bioprocesses.

Graphical Abstract

A microelectrode array sensor for real-time measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) is presented for use in  multipoint and simultaneous snapshot profiling of DO in a biofilm. The sensor has been validated against a commercial Clark-type.


Dissolved oxygen Microelectrode array Sensors Bioprocess monitoring Biofilms 



This work has been founded by projects DPI2011-28262-C04 and CTM2012-37927-C03/FEDER, financed by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spain). AM gratefully acknowledges an FPI-2012 pre-doctoral scholarship, (it funded her PhD studies at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), and XG also acknowledges an FPI-UPC pre-doctoral scholarship, both from Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spain).

Supplementary material

604_2014_1405_MOESM1_ESM.docx (380 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 379 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Moya
    • 1
    • 5
  • Xavier Guimerà
    • 2
  • Francisco Javier del Campo
    • 1
  • Elisabet Prats-Alfonso
    • 1
    • 5
  • Antonio David Dorado
    • 2
  • Mireia Baeza
    • 3
  • Rosa Villa
    • 1
    • 5
  • David Gabriel
    • 4
  • Xavier Gamisans
    • 2
  • Gemma Gabriel
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Esfera UABCampus Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain
  2. 2.Department of Mining Engineering and Natural ResourcesUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaManresaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Facultat de Ciències, Edifici C-NordUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversitat Autònoma de Barcelona, EdificiQBellaterraSpain
  5. 5.Biomedical Research Networking Center in BioengineeringBiomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN)ZaragozaSpain

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