Microchimica Acta

, Volume 180, Issue 3–4, pp 261–268

Nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide based on the electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on poly(ionic liquid)-stabilized graphene sheets

Original Paper


We have developed a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (HP) that is based on a new kind of nanocomposite consisting of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) electrodeposited on a basic film of a poly(ionic liquid) containing graphene. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray studies, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. The AgNPs on the basic composite film provide the electrode with enhanced sensitivity in that the signal obtained for HP is 10-fold improved in the best case. The sensor exhibits good linear response in the 0.1 μM to 2.2 mM HP concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.05 μM (at S/N = 3).


Graphene Poly(ionic liquid) Silver nanoparticle Nonenzymatic Hydrogen peroxide 

Supplementary material

604_2012_921_MOESM1_ESM.doc (152 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 152 kb)


  1. 1.
    Estevez L, Kelarakis A, Gong Q, Da’as EH, Giannelis EP (2011) Multifunctional graphene/platinum/nafion hybrids via ice templating. J Am Chem Soc 133:6122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li SJ, Deng DH, Shi Q, Liu SR (2012) Electrochemical synthesis of a graphene sheet and gold nanoparticle-based nanocomposite, and its application to amperometric sensing of dopamine. Microchim Acta 177:325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Luo J, Zhang H, Jiang S, Jiang J, Liu X (2012) Facile one-step electrochemical fabrication of a non-enzymatic glucose-selective glassy carbon electrode modified with copper nanoparticles and graphene. Microchim Acta 177:485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pérez-López B, Merkoçi A (2012) Carbon nanotubes and graphene in analytical sciences. Microchim Acta 179:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gan T, Hu S (2011) Electrochemical sensors based on graphene materials. Microchim Acta 175:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Amajjahe S, Ritter H (2009) Microwave-sensitive foamable poly (ionic liquids) bearing tert-butyl ester groups: influence of counterions on the ester pyrolysis. Macromol Rapid Commun 30:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu BH, Hu D, Kuang YJ, Liu B, Zhang XH, Chen JH (2009) Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by anionic-liquid polymer: dispersion of Pt and PtRu nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes and their electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. Angew Chem Int Ed 48:4751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tollan CM, Marcilla R, Pomposo JA, Rodriguez J, Aizpurua J, Molina J, Mecerreyes D (2009) Irreversible thermochromic behavior in gold and silver nanorod/polymeric ionic liquid nanocomposite films. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1:348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang Q, Wu S, Zhang L, Lu J, Verproot F, Liu Y, Xing Z, Li J, Song X (2011) Fabrication of polymeric ionic liquid/graphene nanocomposite for glucose oxidase immobilization and direct electrochemistry. Biosens Bioelectron 26:2632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tung TT, Kim TY, Shim JP, Yang WS, Kim H, Suh KS (2011) Poly (ionic liquid)-stabilized graphene sheets and their hybrid with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). Org Electron 12:2215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim TY, Lee HW, Kim JE, Suh KS (2010) Synthesis of phase transferable graphene sheets using ionic liquid polymers. ACS Nano 4:1612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bo X, Bai J, Qi B, Guo L (2011) Ultra-fine Pt nanoparticles supported on ionic liquid polymer-functionalized ordered mesoporous carbons for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection. Biosens Bioelectron 28:77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luo Z, Chen K, Lu D, Han H, Zou M (2011) Synthesis of p-aminothiophenol-embedded gold/silver core-shell nanostructures as novel SERS tags for biosensing applications. Microchim Acta 173:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Habibi B, Jahanbakhshi M, Pournaghi-Azar MH (2012) Voltammetric and amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide using a carbon-ceramic electrode modified with a nanohybrid composite made from single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 177:185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takai A, Kamat PV (2011) Capture, store, and discharge. Shuttling photogenerated electrons across TiO2-silver interface. ACS Nano 5:7369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choi JW, McDonough J, Jeong S, Yoo JS, Chan CK, Cui Y (2010) Stepwise nanopore evolution in one-dimensional nanostructures. Nano Lett 10:1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tian L, Feng Y, Qi Y, Wang B, Chen Y (2012) Non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide based on a biocomposite made from chitosan, hemoglobin, and silver nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 177:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Choi I, Song HD, Lee S, Yang YI, Kang T, Yi J (2012) Core-satellites assembly of silver nanoparticles on a single gold nanoparticle via metal ion-mediated complex. J Am Chem Soc 134:12083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang Y, Tang M, Li X, Gao F, Li M (2012) Sensor for hydrogen peroxide using a hemoglobin-modified glassy carbon electrode prepared by enhanced loading of silver nanoparticles onto carbon nanospheres via spontaneous polymerization of dopamine. Microchim Acta 176:405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen Y, Wu L, Chen Y, Bi N, Zheng X (2012) Determination of mercury(II) by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy based on thiol-functionalized silver nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 177:341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hummers WS, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80:1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marcilla R, Blazquez JA, Rodriguez J, Pomposo JA, Mecerreyes D (2004) Tuning the solubility of polymerized ionic liquids by simple anion exchange reactions. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 42:208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim TY, Lee TH, Kim JE, Kasi RM, Sung CSP, Suh KS (2008) Organic solvent dispersion of poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) with the use of polymeric ionic liquid. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 46:6872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhu Y, Stoller MD, Cai W, Velamakanni A, Piner RD, Chen D (2010) Exfoliation of graphite oxide in propylene carbonate and thermal reduction of the resulting graphene oxide platelets. ACS Nano 4:1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Safavi A, Maleki N, Farjamia E (2009) Electrodeposited silver nanoparticles on carbon ionic liquid electrode for electrocatalytic sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Electroanalysis 21:1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xiao F, Zhao F, Zhang Y, Guo G, Zeng B (2009) Ultrasonic electrodeposition of gold–platinum alloy nanoparticles on ionic liquid–chitosan composite film and their application in fabricating nonenzyme hydrogen peroxide sensors. J Phys Chem C 113:849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferrari AC (2007) Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: disorder, electron–phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects. Solid State Commun 143:47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu Y, Huang Y, Xie Y, Yang Z, Huang H, Zhou Q (2012) Preparation of highly dispersed CuPt nanoparticles on ionic-liquid-assisted graphene sheets for direct methanol fuel cell. Chem Eng J 197:80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ping J, Wang Y, Fan K, Wu J, Ying Y (2011) Direct electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide on ionic liquid doped screen-printed electrode and its electrochemical biosensing application. Biosens Bioelectron 28:204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xu F, Sun Y, Zhang Y, Shi Y, Wen Z, Li Z (2011) Graphene-Pt nanocomposite for nonenzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide with enhanced sensitivity. Electrochem Commun 13:1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang AJ, Zhang PP, Li YF, Feng JJ, Dong WJ, Liu XY (2011) Hydrogen peroxide sensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with β-manganese dioxide nanorods. Microchim Acta 175:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li Y, Zhang JJ, Xuan J, Jiang LP, Zhu JJ (2010) Fabrication of a novel nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on Se/Pt nanocomposites. Electrochem Commun 12:777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lin KC, Tsai TH, Chen SM (2010) Performing enzyme-free H2O2 biosensor and simultaneous determination for AA, DA, and UA by MWCNT-PEDOT film. Biosens Bioelectron 26:608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Razmi H, Mohammad-Rezaei R (2010) Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor using an electrode modified with iron pentacyanonitrosylferrate nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 171:257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhang K, Zhang N, Cai H, Cong W (2012) A novel non-enzyme hydrogen peroxide sensor based on an electrode modified with carbon nanotube-wired CuO nanoflowers. Microchim Acta 176:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhong H, Yuan R, Chai Y, Zhang Y, Wang C, Jia F (2012) Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide amperometric sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with an MWCNT/polyaniline composite film and platinum nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 176:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ScienceXidian UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical ChemistryNorthwest UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Environmental Science & EngineeringBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations