Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, Volume 176, Issue 3–4, pp 271–277 | Cite as

Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase promoted by carbon nanotubes is without value in certain mediator-free applications

  • Yan WangEmail author
  • Yongjian Yao
Original Paper

Abstract

We have investigated the direct electron transfer (DET) promoted by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on an electrode containing immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) with the aim to develop a third-generation glucose biosensor and a mediator-free glucose biofuel cell anode. GOx was immobilized via chitosan (CS) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Cyclic voltammetric revealed that the GOx on the surface of such an electrode is unable to simultaneously demonstrate DET with the electrode and to retain its catalytic activity towards glucose, although the MWCNTs alone can promote electron transfer between GOx and electrode. This is interpreted in terms of two types of GOx on the surface, the distribution and properties of which are quite different. The first type exhibits DET capability that results from the collaboration of MWCNTs and metal impurities, but is unable to catalyze the oxidation of glucose. The second type maintains its glucose-specific catalytic capability in the presence of a mediator, which can be enhanced by MWCNTs, but cannot undergo DET with the electrode. As a result, the MWCNTs are capable of promoting the electron transfer, but this is without value in some mediator-free applications such as in third-generation glucose biosensors and in mediator-free anodes for glucose biofuel cells.

Graphical Abstract

Two types of glucose oxidase (GOx) are immobilized on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-modified electrode. DET (direct electron transfer)-GOx exhibits DET ability deriving from the collaboration of MWCNTs and metal impurities, is unable to electrooxidize glucose. GCA (glucose-specific catalytic activity)-GOx cannot undergo DET with the electrode.

Keywords

Direct electron transfer Glucose oxidase Carbon nanotubes 

References

  1. 1.
    Wang J (2008) Electrochemical glucose biosensors. Chem Rev 108:814–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ivnitski D, Branch B, Atanassov P, Apblett C (2006) Glucose oxidase anode for biofuel cell based on direct electron transfer. Electrochem Commun 8:1204–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mao F, Mano N, Heller A (2003) Long tethers binding redox centers to polymer backbones enhance electron transport in enzyme “wiring” hydrogels. J Am Chem Soc 125:4951–4957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zayats M, Katz E, Willner I (2002) Electrical contacting of glucose oxidase by surface-reconstitution of the apo-protein on a relay-boronic acid-FAD cofactor monolayer. J Am Chem Soc 124:2120–2121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guiseppi-Elie A, Lei CH, Baughman RH (2002) Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase on carbon nanotubes. Nanotechno 13:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cai CX, Chen J (2004) Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase promoted by carbon nanotubes. Anal Biochem 332:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu Y, Wang MK, Zhao F, Xu ZA, Dong SJ (2005) The direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotubes/chitosan matrix. Biosens Bioelectron 21:984–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wen D, Liu Y, Yang GC, Dong SJ (2007) Electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on the carbon nanotube wrapped by polyelectrolyte. Electrochim Acta 52:5312–5317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu Q, Lu XB, Li J, Yao X, Li JH (2007) Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and electrochemical biosensing of glucose on quantum dots/carbon nanotubes electrodes. Biosens Bioelectron 22:3203–3209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang JD, Feng ML, Tachikawa H (2007) Layer-by-layer fabrication and direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on single wall carbon nanotubes. Biosens Bioelectron 22:3036–3041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhou Y, Yang H, Chen HY (2008) Direct electrochemistry and reagentless biosensing of glucose oxidase immobilized on chitosan wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Talanta 76:419–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deng SY, Jian GQ, Lei JP, Hu Z, Ju HXA (2009) Glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes. Biosens Bioelectron 25:373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gao RF, Zheng JB (2009) Amine-terminated ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotube-gold nanoparticles for investigating the direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase. Electrochem Commun 11:608–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li FH, Song JX, Li F, Wang XD, Zhang QX, Han DX, Ivaska A, Niu L (2009) Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and biosensing for glucose based on carbon nanotubes@SnO2-Au composite. Biosens Bioelectron 25:883–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu X, Zhao F, Varcoe JR, Thumser AE, Avignone-Rossa C, Slade RCT (2009) Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase immobilized in an ionic liquid reconstituted cellulose-carbon nanotube matrix. Bioelectrochem 77:64–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhao HZ, Sun JJ, Song J, Yang QZ (2010) Direct electron transfer and conformational change of glucose oxidase on carbon nanotube-based electrodes. Carbon 48:1508–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    You CP, Li X, Zhang S, Kong JL, Zhao DY, Liu BH (2009) Electrochemistry and biosensing of glucose oxidase immobilized on Pt-dispersed mesoporous carbon. Microchim Acta 167:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bourdillon C, Demaille C, Cueris J, Moiroux J, Saveant JM (1993) A fully active monolayer enzyme electrode derivatized by antigen-antibody attachment. J Am Chem Soc 115:12264–12269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Valentini F, Orlanducci S, Terranova ML, Amine A, Palleschi G (2004) Carbon nanotubes as electrode materials for the assembling of new electrochemical biosensors. Sensors Actuator B 100:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Demirkol DO, Timur S (2011) Chitosan matrices modified with carbon nanotubes for use in mediated microbial biosensing. Microchim Acta 173:537–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations