Microchimica Acta

, Volume 176, Issue 3–4, pp 317–325 | Cite as

Comparative study of the sol–gel based solid phase microextraction fibers in extraction of naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene from saffron samples extractants

  • Ali Sarafraz-YazdiEmail author
  • Feryal Ghaemi
  • Amirhassan Amiri
Original Paper


We are introducing a method for the determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous saffron sample by direct immersion solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. A sol–gel technique is used for the preparation of the SPME fibers. Three kinds of sol–gel coatings on the fibers were tested and compared. They are composed of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and a poly(ethylene glycol) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG/CNTs). The effects of fiber coating, desorption time, desorption temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salting effect were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (at S/N = 3) are 7–50, 5–50, and 1–10 pg mL–1, respectively, for SPME fibers made from PDMS, PEG and PEG/CNTs. The relative standard deviations for one type of fiber are from 2.1% to 9.6% for all fibers (at n = 5), and in the range from 1.9% to 9.8% from batch to batch (for n = 3).


SPME based on sol–gel technology was proposed for determination of in extraction of naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene from saffron samples extractants. Three different SPME fibers, i.e. PDMS, PEG and PEG/CNT, based on sol–gel were made. A comparative study of the coating fibers was done. This method has wide dynamic range and high sensitivity.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons SPME GC–FID Sol–gel technique Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) Saffron 



The authors are thankful to Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, for financial support of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Sarafraz-Yazdi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Feryal Ghaemi
    • 1
  • Amirhassan Amiri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

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