Microchimica Acta

, Volume 156, Issue 3–4, pp 253–261 | Cite as

Study of the winter and summer changes of the air composition in the church of Szalowa, Poland, related to conservation

  • Anna Worobiec
  • Lucyna Samek
  • Zoya Spolnik
  • Velichka Kontozova
  • Elzbieta Stefaniak
  • René Van Grieken
Original Paper


The St. Michael Archangel’s Church in Szalowa, Poland, was selected for closer investigation with respect to the indoor/outdoor air exchange and its influence on the air quality and work arts preservation. Chemical composition, size and abundance of particulate matter and concentration of gases NO2, SO2, O3 inside and outside the church were determined. To study seasonal variation of the weather condition (temperature, inversion level, wind direction) and the influence of seasonal sources of the air pollution (like heating of the nearby houses), samples were collected in winter and summer time. It was stated that suspended particulate matter inside the wooden church has in general an outdoor source. Several groups of particles were distinguished such as the organic ones, soil dust, nitrates and sulphates. In case of organic and soil dust particles, the concentration inside was higher than outside. From the results, in comparison to literature data, one can conclude that accumulation of particulate suspended matter in the church is more intense than in other types of buildings. Gaseous pollutants were detected but their concentration was negligible.

Key words: Particulate and gaseous air pollutants; EPMA; EDXRF; cultural heritage deterioration. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Camuffo, D 2001Atmos Environ35S127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Camuffo, D 1999The Sci Total Environ236135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Camuffo, D, Bernardi, I, Sturaro, G, Valentino, A 2002J Cultural Heritage31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gysels, K, Deutsch, F, Van Grieken, R 2002Atmos Environ364103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gysels, K, Delalieux, F, Deutsch, F, Van Grieken, R 2004J Cultural Heritage5221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Van Grieken, R, Gysels, K, Hoornaert, S, Joos, P, Osan, J, Szaloki, I, Worobiec, A 2000Water, Air and Soil Pollution123215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Bock, L 1995J Aerosol Sci261S513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Injuk, J, Osan, J, Van Grieken, R, Tsuji, K 2002Anal Sci18561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nazaroff W W, Ligocki M P, Salmon L G, Cass G R, Fall T, Jones M C, Liu H I H, Ma T (1992) Protection of works of art from soiling due to aiborne particulates. GCI Scientific Program Report, JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  10. Sanchez-Moral, S, Soler, V, Canaveras, J C, Sanz-Rubio, E, Van Grieken, R, Gysels, K 1999The Sci Total Environ243/24467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Torfs, K, Van Grieken, R 1997Atmos Environ312179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holynska, B, Gilewicz-Wolter, J, Ostachowicz, B, Bielewski, M, Streli, C, Wobrauschek, P 2004X-Ray Spectrometry33342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Spolnik, Z, Worobiec, A, Injuk, J, Neilen, D 2004Microchim Acta145223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Spolnik, Z, Bencs, L, Worobiec, A, Van Grieken, R 2005Microchim Acta14979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Van Grieken R, Janssens K (eds) (2005) Cultural heritage conservation and environmental impact assessment by non-destructive testing and micro-analysis. A. A. Balkema PublishersGoogle Scholar
  16. Vekemans, B, Janssens, K, Vincze, L, Adams, F, Van Espen, P 1994X-Ray Spectrometry23278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ro, C-U, Osan, J, Van Grieken, R 1999Anal Chem711521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Worobiec, A, De Hoog, J, Osan, J, Szaloki, I, Ro, C-U, Van Grieken, R 2003Spectrochim Acta B58479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Szaloki, I, Osan, J, Ro, C-U, Van Grieken, R 2000Spectrochim Acta55B1017Google Scholar
  20. Massart, D, Kaufmann, L 1983The interpretation of analytical chemical data by the use of cluster analysisJohn Wiley and SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Van Espen, P 1984Anal Chim Acta16531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bondarenko, I, Treiger, B, Van Malderen, H, Van Grieken, R, Van Espen, P 1996Spectrochim Acta51B441Google Scholar
  23. Instruction for NO2–SO2 sampling by radiello® NO2–SO2-UK-0301; Radiello®-Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri; Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione-IRCCS; Environmental Research Centre, via Svizzera, 16-I-35127 Padova, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  24. Kontozova V, Deutsch F, Godoi R, Godoi A F, Joos P, Van Grieken R (2002) Proceedings of 7th International Conference Art Antwerp, Belgium, p 1Google Scholar
  25. Andrews, J E, Brimblecombe, P, Jickells, T D, Liss, P S 1996An introduction to environmental chemistryBlackwell ScienceOxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Press, F, Siever, R 1997Understanding earthW. H. FreemanNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Götschi, T, Hazenkamp-von Arx, M E, Heinrich, J, Bono, R, Burney, P, Forsberg, B, Jarvis, D, Maldonado, J, Norbäck, D, Stern, W B, Sunyer, J, Torén, K, Verlato, G, Villani, S, Künzli, N 2005Atmos Environ395947CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Worobiec
    • 1
  • Lucyna Samek
    • 2
  • Zoya Spolnik
    • 1
  • Velichka Kontozova
    • 1
  • Elzbieta Stefaniak
    • 1
    • 3
  • René Van Grieken
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Radiometric AnalysisAGH University of Science and TechnologyKrakowPoland
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryCatholic University of LublinLublinPoland

Personalised recommendations