Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, Volume 156, Issue 1–2, pp 167–172 | Cite as

Sulfur incorporation in electroplated Cu(Ag) thin films

  • Steffen Strehle
  • Rainer Reiche
  • Volker Hoffmann
  • Jörg Acker
  • Thomas Gemming
  • Klaus Wetzig
Original Paper

Abstract.

Cu(Ag) films are a promising interconnect material due to their low electrical resistivity and due to an expected increase of the electromigration resistance by alloying effects compared to pure copper films. Besides the alloying element also impurities are incorporated into the film during the electrochemical deposition process, which can retard or enhance electromigration damage. An impurity element of special interest is sulfur, which could probably improve the interconnect reliability besides the alloying element silver. In this paper, the incorporation, the distribution and the chemical state of sulfur in Cu(Ag) films is discussed in dependence on the thermal history. The investigations were mainly carried out by XPS and GD-OES measurements.

Key words: Copper-silver alloy film; sulfur impurity; electroplating; electromigration. 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Tu, T N 2003J Appl Phys945451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Padhi, D, Gandikota, S, Nguyen, H B, McGuirk, C, Ramanathan, S, Yahalom, J, Dixit, G 2003Electrochim Acta48935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Zhang, W, Brongersma, S H, Richard, O, Brijs, B, Palmans, R 2004Microelectron Eng76146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Strehle, S, Menzel, S, Wendrock, H, Acker, J, Wetzig, K 2003Microelectron Eng70506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Strehle, S, Menzel, S, Wendrock, H, Acker, J, Gemming, T, Wetzig, K 2004Microelectron Eng76205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barmak, K, Gungor, A, Cabral, C,Jr, Harper, J M E 2003J Appl Phys941605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Korhonen, M A, Liu, T, Brown, D D, Li, C-Y 1996AIP Conference Proceedings373117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ames, I, d’Heurle, F M, Horstmann, R E 1970IBM J Res Dev14461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lloyd, J R 1999Microelectron Eng4951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glickmann, E, Nathan, M 1996J Appl Phys803782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Zehe, A 2002Microelectron Reliab421849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dubin, V M, Brewer, R R, Simka, H, Shankar, S 2002Future FAB Intl13244Google Scholar
  13. Bubert, H, Jenett, H 2002Surface and thin film analysisWILEY-VCH VerlagGmbHGoogle Scholar
  14. Lagrange, S, Brongersma, S H, Judelewicz, M, Saerens, A, Vervoort, I, Richard, E, Palmans, R, Maex, K 2000Microelectron Eng50449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moulder J F, Stickle W F, Sobol P E, Bomben K D (1995) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Physical Electronics IncGoogle Scholar
  16. Reiche, R, Thielsch, R, Oswald, S, Wetzig, K 1999J Electron Spectrosc104161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malinowski, E R, Howery, D G 1980Factor analysis in chemistryWileyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Massalski T B, Okamoto H, Subramanian P R, Kacprzak L (1992) Binary alloy phase diagrams, 2nd edn. ASM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  19. Nascu, C, Pop, I, Ionescu, V, Indrea, E, Bratu, I 1997Mater Lett3273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gupta, D 1977Metall Trans A81431Google Scholar
  21. Moya, F, Moya-Gontier, G E 1975Scripta Metal9307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Surholt, T, Herzig, C 1997Acta Mater453817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lloyd, J R, Clement, J J 1995Thin Solid Films262135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bonzel, H P 1990Surface diffusion on metalsLandolt-Börnstein,  eds. Diffusion in solid metals and alloys, new series III/26SpringerBerlin Heidelberg717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kang, M, Gewirth, A A 2003J Electrochem Soc150C426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim, S K, Kim, J J 2004Electrochem Solid St7C98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kondo, K, Yamakawa, N, Tanaka, Z, Hayashi, K 2003J Electroanal Chem559137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Frank, A, Bard, A J 2003J Electrochem Soc150C244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Farndon, F, Walsh, F C, Campbell, S A 1995J Appl Electrochem25574CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steffen Strehle
    • 1
  • Rainer Reiche
    • 1
  • Volker Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Jörg Acker
    • 1
  • Thomas Gemming
    • 1
  • Klaus Wetzig
    • 1
  1. 1.IFW DresdenDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations