Microchimica Acta

, Volume 154, Issue 3–4, pp 175–189 | Cite as

Principles and Analytical Applications of Heated Electrodes

  • Peter Gründler
  • Gerd-Uwe FlechsigEmail author


This article reviews the development of the various heated electrodes, heating devices and their analytical applications which have been published during the last decades. Generally spoken, electrode heating can provide different positive effects on electrochemical measurements: mass transport enhancement, reaction kinetics acceleration and the removal of deposited substances from the electrode surface. This often leads to remarkably improved signal-to-noise characteristics in electroanalytical chemistry. Short heat pulses or direct heating of very small electrolyte compartments allow for temperatures far above the boiling point of the solution. Major application fields include trace metal and nucleic acids analysis. Future development will result in miniaturized selectively heated electrode arrays.

Key words: Heated electrodes; hot-wire-electrochemistry; hydrodynamic electrodes; microwave activation. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Miller, B 1983J Electrochem Soc1301639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Valdes, J L, Miller, B 1988J Phys Chem92525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Climent, V, Coles, B A, Compton, R G, Feliu, J M 2004J Electroanal Chem561157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akkermans, R P, Suarez, M F, Roberts, S L, Fulian, Q, Compton, R G 1999Electroanalysis111191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akkermans, R P, Ming, Wu, Compton, R G 1998Electroanalysis10814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akkermans, R P, Wu, M, Bain, C D, Fidel-Suárez, M, Compton, R G 1998Electroanalysis10613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Slifkin, M A, Bakarudin, I 1985Electrochim Acta30907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Olivier, A, Merienne, E, Chopart, J P, Aaboubi, O 1992Electrochim Acta371945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gabrielli, C, Tribollet, B 1994J Electrochem Soc1411147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rotenberg, Z A 1993J Electroanal Chem345469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rotenberg, Z A 1997Electrochim Acta42793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Qiu, F L, Compton, R F, Marken, F, Wilkins, S J, Goeting, C H, Foord, J S 2000Anal Chem722362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ducret, L, Cornet, C 1966J Electroanal Chem11317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gabrielli, C, Keddam, M, Lizee, J F 1983J Electroanal Chem148293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gabrielli, C, Keddam, M, Lizee, J F 1993J Electroanal Chem3591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gründler, P, Tadesse, Zerihun, Möller, A, Kirbs, A 1993J Electroanal Chem360309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gründler, P 1998Fresenius’ J Anal Chem362180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gründler, P, Tadesse, Zerihun, Kirbs, A, Grabow, H 1995Anal Chim Acta305232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Voss, T, Gründler, P, Kirbs, A, Flechsig, G U 1999Electrochem Commun1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gründler, P, Voss, T, Kirbs, A 1998GDCH-Monographien14123Google Scholar
  21. Voss, T, Kirbs, A, Gründler, P 2000Fresenius J Anal Chem367320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kirbs A (1999) „Temperatur-Puls-Voltammetrie”, Thesis, Rostock UniversityGoogle Scholar
  23. Tadesse, Zerihun, Gründler, P 1996J Electroanal Chem404243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schneider, A, Flechsig, G U, Gründler, P 2000J Electrochem Soc1473768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frischmuth, K, Visocky, P, Gründler, P 1996Int J Engng Sci34523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gründler, P, Kirbs, A, Tadesse, Zerihun 1996Analyst1211805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Britz, D 1988Digital Simulation in ElectrochemistrySpringerBerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. Beckmann, A, Coles, B A, Compton, R G, Gründler, P, Marken, F, Neudeck, A 2000J Phys Chem104764Google Scholar
  29. Tadesse, Zerihun, Gründler, P 1998J Electroanal Chem44157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gründler, P, Flechsig, G U 1998Electrochim Acta233451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tadesse, Zerihun, Gründler, P 1996J Electroanal Chem41585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang, J, Gründler, P, Flechsig, G U, Jasinski, M, Lu, J, Wang, J, Zhao, Zh, Tian, B 1999Anal Chim Acta39633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Flechsig, G U, Korbut, O, Gründler, P 2001Electroanalysis13786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jasinski, M, Kirbs, A, Schmehl, M, Gründler, P 1999Electrochem Commun126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jasinski, M, Gründler, P, Flechsig, G U, Wang, J 2001Electroanalysis1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Beckmann, A, Schneider, A, Gründler, P 1999Electrochem Commun146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang, J, Jasinski, M, Flechsig, G U, Gründler, P, Tian, B 2000Talanta501205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Voss, T, Gründler, P, Brett, C M A, Brett, A M O 1999J Pharm Biomed Anal19127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Flechsig, G U, Korbut, O, Hocevar, S B, Thongngamdee, S, Ogorevc, B, Gründler, P, Wang, J 2002Electroanalysis14192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gründler P (2005) Heat, radiation and mechanical energy as parameters in electrochemistry, Poster, 40th Baltic Conference on Electrochemistry, Greifswald, Germany, March 13–16Google Scholar
  41. Gründler, P, Voss, T, Kirbs, A 1998GDCH-Monographien14123Google Scholar
  42. Gründler, P, Degenring, D 2001J Electroanal Chem51274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gründler, P, Degenring, D 2001Electroanalysis13755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang, J, Gründler, P, Flechsig, G U, Jasinski, M, Rivas, G, Sahlin, E, Paz, J L L 2000Anal Chem723752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang, J, Flechsig, G U, Erdem, A, Korbut, O, Gründler, P 2004Electroanalysis16928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flechsig, G U, Kienbaum, M, Gründler, P 2005Electrochem Commun71091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Svancara, I, Kotzian, P, Metelka, R, Bartos, M, Foret, P, Vytras, K 2002Monitoring of Pollutants in the EnvironmentUniversity of PardubicePardubice145158in CzechGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang, J, Gründler, P 2003Electroanalysis151756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gründler P, Flechsig G U, Jasinski M, Korbut O, Wang J (1999) DE Patent 199 60 398 B4Google Scholar
  50. Caillat P, Peltie P, Livache T (1998) U.S. Patent 6,255,677 B1Google Scholar
  51. Flechsig, G U, Peter, J, Hartwich, G, Wang, J, Gründler, P 2005Langmuir217848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Flechsig G U, Peter J, Gründler P (2005) in preparationGoogle Scholar
  53. Harima, Y, Aoyagui, S 1976J Electroanal Chem69419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lau, C, Reiter, S, Schuhmann, W, Gründler, P 2004Anal Bioanal Chem379255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Duwensee H, Lau C, Gründler P (2005) in preparationGoogle Scholar
  56. Lau, C, Flechsig, G U, Gründler, P, Wang, J 2005Anal Chim Acta55474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yang, H, Choi, C A, Chung, K H, Jun, C H, Kim, Y T 2004Anal Chem761537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Buckova, M, Gründler, P, Flechsig, G U 2005Electroanalysis17440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Buckova M, Gründler P, Flechsig G U (2005) in preparationGoogle Scholar
  60. Baranski, A 2002Anal Chem741294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Compton R G, Coles B A, Marken F (1998) Chem Commun 2595Google Scholar
  62. Akkermans, R P, Roberts, S L, Marken, F, Coles, B A, Wilkens, S J, Cooper, J A, Woodhouse, K E, Compton, R G 1999J Phys Chem B1039987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marken, F, Matthews, S L, Compton, R G, Coles, B A 2000Electroanalysis12267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tsai, Y C, Coles, B A, Compton, R G, Marken, F 2001Electroanalysis13639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marken, F, Tsai, Y C, Coles, B A, Matthews, S L, Compton, R G 2000New J Chem24653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marken, F, Tsai, Y C, Saterlay, A J, Coles, B A, Tibbetts, D, Holt, K, Goeting, C H, Foord, J S, Compton, R G 2001J Solid State Electrochem5313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tsai, Y C, Coles, B A, Holt, K, Foord, J S, Marken, F, Compton, R G 2001Electroanalysis13831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tsai, Y C, Coles, B A, Compton, R G, Marken, F 2002J Am Chem Soc1249784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sur, U K, Marken, F, Rees, N, Coles, B A, Compton, R G, Seager, R 2004J Electroanal Chem573175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sur U K, Marken F, Coles B A, Compton R G, Dupont J (2004) Chem Commun 2816Google Scholar
  71. Sur, U K, Marken, F, Compton, R G, Coles, B A 2004New J Chem281544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sur, U K, Marken, F, Seager, R, Foord, J S, Chatterjee, A, Coles, B A, Compton, R G 2005Electroanalysis17385CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of RostockRostockGermany

Personalised recommendations