Imaging Single Atoms with Z-Contrast Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in Two and Three Dimensions
- First Online:
- 120 Downloads
Z-Contrast STEM images of heavily antimony-doped silicon have been acquired which show quantifiable contrast from single impurity atoms inside a crystal. These images are two-dimensional projections of the sample, which makes identifying defects involving clusters of impurities difficult. Spherical aberration-corrected optics allow probes with much larger convergence angles to be used, which makes it possible to localize impurities in three dimensions by optical sectioning. A three dimensional generalization of the standard two-dimensional convolution description of incoherent imaging captures the basics of this new imaging mode, but probe channeling effects introduce important complications for zone-axis crystals.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Crewe, A V, Wall, J, Langmore, J 1970Science1681338Google Scholar
- Gu, M 1996Principles of three dimensional imaging in confocal microscopesWorld ScientificSingaporeGoogle Scholar
- Borisevich, A, et al. 2004
Studies of nanocrystals with single-atom sensitivityElectron microscopy of molecular and atom-scale mechanical behavior, chemistry, and structureMaterials Research SocietyBoston, MAGoogle Scholar
- Fertig, J, Rose, H 1981Optik59407Google Scholar
- Loane, R F, Kirkland, E J, Silcox, J 1988Acta CrystA44912Google Scholar
- Vanfleet R R et al (1998) Prospects for single atom sensitivity measurements of dopant levels in silicon. In: Characterization and metrology for ULSI technology: 1998 International Conference. American Institute of PhysicsGoogle Scholar
- Kirkland, E J 1998Advanced computing in electron microscopyPlenum PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
- Pennycook, S J, Rafferty, B, Nellist, P D 2000Microsc Microanal6343Google Scholar
- Spence, J C H, Tafto, J 1983J Microscopy130147Google Scholar