Microchimica Acta

, Volume 155, Issue 1, pp 5–10

Imaging Single Atoms with Z-Contrast Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in Two and Three Dimensions

  • Paul M. Voyles
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00604-006-0500-6

Cite this article as:
Voyles, P. Microchim Acta (2006) 155: 5. doi:10.1007/s00604-006-0500-6


Z-Contrast STEM images of heavily antimony-doped silicon have been acquired which show quantifiable contrast from single impurity atoms inside a crystal. These images are two-dimensional projections of the sample, which makes identifying defects involving clusters of impurities difficult. Spherical aberration-corrected optics allow probes with much larger convergence angles to be used, which makes it possible to localize impurities in three dimensions by optical sectioning. A three dimensional generalization of the standard two-dimensional convolution description of incoherent imaging captures the basics of this new imaging mode, but probe channeling effects introduce important complications for zone-axis crystals.

Key words: Z-Contrast STEM; optical sectioning; channeling. 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul M. Voyles
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Science and Engineering, University of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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