Monitoring the Quality of Ultra-Pure Water in the Semiconductor Industry by Online Ion Chromatography
- 106 Downloads
To manufacture 300 mm wafers, large quantities of ultra-pure water are required, which makes water the most important chemical used in this process. Therefore, its specification requiring ionic contaminants in the lower pg mL−1-concentration range is very strict. While inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used for monitoring inorganic cations, ion chromatography (IC) is applied in the determination of ammonium and inorganic anions in the lower pg mL−1 range.
For routine monitoring of both ammonium and inorganic cations and inorganic anions in the lower pg mL−1 range with online IC, gradient conditions were developed using the simulation software DryLab2000. The resulting methods were subsequently validated. The limit of quantification for a concentrated sample volume of 200 mL was statistically assessed at 1–2 pg mL−1 for ammonium and some alkaline/earth alkaline cations, and at 5–10 ng L−1 for inorganic anions, respectively.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2004 Update, Overall Roadmap Technology Characteristics. SEMATECH, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
- Ferrero, E J, Posey, D 2002J Anal At Spectrom171194Google Scholar
- Rostham-Khani, P, Hopstaken, M J P, Vullings, P, Noij, G, O’Halloran, O, Claassen, W 2004Appl Surf Sci231–232720Google Scholar
- Kyereboah-Taylor, B A 1995Am Lab2724AGoogle Scholar
- Ehmann, T, Fabry, L, Moreland, J, Hage, J, Serwe, M 2000Semicond FABTECH1271Google Scholar
- Newton, B, Somerville, K H 2000Ultrapure Water1752Google Scholar
- ASTM (1999) D5127-99: Standard guide for ultra pure water used in the electronics and semiconductor industry. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, pp 1–5Google Scholar
- DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e V (1994) DIN 32645: Chemical analysis; decision limit, detection limit and determination limit; estimation in cases of repeatability, terms, methods evaluation. Beuth Verlag, Berlin, pp 1–12Google Scholar
- International Standard (1999) ISO 14644-1 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments. Part 1: classification of air cleanliness. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, pp 1–24Google Scholar
- Molnar, I 2000J Chromatogr A965175Google Scholar
- DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e V (1995) DIN EN ISO 10304-1: water quality – determination of dissolved fluoride, chloride, nitrite, orthophosphate, bromide, nitrate and sulfate ions, using liquid chromatography of ions – part 1: method for water with low contamination. Beuth Verlag, Berlin, pp 1–25Google Scholar
- Product Manual IONPAC® AG17 Guard Column/IONPAC® AS17 Analytical column, document no. 031529 (2002). Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA, pp 1–35Google Scholar
- Product Manual IONPAC® CG12 Guard Column/IONPAC® CS12 analytical column, document no. 034657 (2003). Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA, pp 1–35Google Scholar
- Denoncourt, J P, Egozy, Y 1986Ultrapure Water340Google Scholar
- Heberling, S S 1996Ultrapure Water1362Google Scholar
- Kunin, R, Yarnell, P 1997Ultrapure Water1458Google Scholar
- Goodman, J B 1994UCT6142Google Scholar
- Goodman, J, Andrews, S 1990Solid State Technol1365Google Scholar
- DryLab User’s Manual (2000). LCResources. Walnut Creeak, CAGoogle Scholar