Method Development for the Speciation of Chromium in River and Industrial Wastewater Using GFAAS
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A simple, sensitive and inexpensive method for the speciation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in river and industrial wastewater was developed, optimized and validated. Samples were collected, filtered and then chromium species were determined in the filtrate. In the filtrate, total Cr was determined directly by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS). A portion of the filtered sample was buffered to pH 6.4, extracted with Amberlite LA-2/MIBK and finally Cr(VI) was determined in the organic extract and Cr(III) in the aqueous phase using GFAAS. The method was evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material, CRM 544, and good accuracy was obtained. The limit of detection for Cr(VI) and Cr(tot)/Cr(III) was found to be 0.30 and 0.08 µg L−1, respectively, and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of better than 11% was achieved for nine replicates. A number of water samples from the Tinishu Akaki River, Ethiopia, and wastewater samples from a chemical plant in Germany, were analysed. In addition to the GFAAS method, Cr(tot) was also determined using ICP-MS (in CRM 544, lyophilized water, and Tinishu Akaki River water samples) and Cr(tot) and Cr(VI) using UV-VIS spectrophotometry (in CRM 544 and industrial wastewater samples). Good agreement between the different methods was found.
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