Simplified Consideration for Permanent Rock Dowels in Block Theory and 2-D Limit Equilibrium Analyses

  • F. TononEmail author
Technical Note


This technical note presents a simplified way to take into account the stabilizing effects of untensioned steel bars fully grouted in rock within block theory and 2-D limit equilibrium analyses of rock blocks. These rock-reinforcing elements are also known as rock dowels (United States), continuously mechanically coupled (CMC) rockbolts, fully grouted rockbolts, fully bonded rock bolts, passive anchors, passive bolts, and untensioned grouted rock bolts: the term dowel will be used here. The literature on this topic is quite extensive, and the reader is referred to e.g., Liu and Li (2017).

The analytical procedure presented in this note may be considered as a simplified version of the yield design method proposed and analyzed by several authors, e.g., Panet (1987) and Ribacchi et al. (1995). In this version, only one yielding mechanism is considered, i.e., the yielding of the dowel at the intersection point with the rock fracture. Therefore, the yield strength of the...


Fully grouted bolts Rock dowels Passive anchors Block theory Limit equilibrium analysis 



Equation (9) appeared in a paper by Ribacchi et al. (1995); the conference paper, in Italian, is mostly unknown to the international literature. The author is grateful to Dr. Y. Z. Li (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China) for providing him with the numerical values for their experimental results and formulation results in Fig. 2. The author is also thankful to the two anonymous reviewers whose comments greatly contributed to the final version of the manuscript.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tonon USAAustinUSA

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