Advertisement

Influence of Super-Critical CO2 on the Strength and Fracture Behavior of Brine-Saturated Sandstone Specimens

  • Yan-Hua Huang
  • Sheng-Qi YangEmail author
  • Wen-Ping Li
  • Matthew R. Hall
Original Paper
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

The mechanical behavior of rock is one of the most important parameters to evaluate the potential for geological carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration (GCS); therefore, the study of rock strength evolution and fracture behavior after CO2 injection is helpful in the long-term stability and safety of GCS engineering. In this study, uniaxial compression, Brazilian splitting and fracture tests were carried out on sandstone specimens with brine saturation or brine-super critical CO2 (scCO2) co-saturation. The influences of brine salinity and scCO2 injection on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) and fracture toughness of sandstone were investigated. The experimental results showed that the UCS, BTS and fracture toughness of brine-saturated sandstone increased with increasing NaCl concentration but decreased after scCO2 injection. Furthermore, increments in the elastic modulus and average stiffness of brine-scCO2 co-saturated sandstone were observed relative to those under brine saturation. To investigate the change of mineral composition and micro structure during brine immersion and scCO2 injection, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopic observation and mercury intrusion porosimetry test were performed. Composition changes and dissolution of quartz were not observed, but many micro pores were created after scCO2 injection, thus increasing the porosity and reducing strength and fracture toughness. Finally, the mechanism of brine-scCO2 saturation in altering mechanical properties was discussed. These experimental results are expected to increase the understanding of the mechanical response of rock after scCO2 injection in deep saline aquifers.

Keywords

Sandstone Strength Fracture toughness CO2 injection Saline aquifers 

List of Symbols

D

Diameter of specimen

H

Height of specimen

SNaCl

Salinity of NaCl solution

ε1

Axial strain

ε3

Circumferential strain

σ1

Axial stress

σ3

Confining pressure

σg

Gas pressure

σ1c

Peak axial stress

ES

Elastic modulus

δ

Axial displacement

F

Axial load

σt

Tensile strength

K

Average stiffness

KIC

Fracture toughness

Pmax

Peak load

a

Notch length

R

Radius of specimen

s

Distance between the two supporting cylindrical rollers

Y’

Non-dimensionless stress intensity factor for mode I loading

B

Thickness of specimen

k

Permeability

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019QNA04). The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, which have greatly improved this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. AL-Ameri WA, Abdulraheem A, Mahmoud M (2016) Long-term effects of CO2 sequestration on rock mechanical properties. J Energy Resour Technol 138(1):012201-1-012201-9Google Scholar
  2. Allen DR, Mayuga MN (1970) The Mechanics of Compaction and Rebound, Wilmington Oil Field, Long Beach, California, U.S.A. First International Association of Hydrological Sciences and UNESCO Land Subsidence Symposium, Tokyo, Vol. 2, pp 410–423Google Scholar
  3. Bachu S (2015) Review of CO2 storage efficiency in deep saline aquifers. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 40:188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachu S, Adams JJ (2003) Sequestration of CO2 in geological media in response to climate change: capacity of deep saline aquifers to sequester CO2 in solution. Energy Convers Manage 44(20):3151–3175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachu S, Bennion B (2008) Effects of in situ conditions on relative permeability characteristics of CO2-brine systems. Environ Geol 54(8):1707–1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baud P, Zhu W, Wong T (2000) Failure mode and weakening effect of water on sandstone. J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 105(B7):16371–16389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruant RG, Guswa AJ, Celia MA, Peters CA (2002) Safe storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers. Environ Sci Technol 36(11):240A–245ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calabrese M, Masserano F, Blunt MJ (2005) Simulation of physical-chemical processes during carbon dioxide sequestration in geological structures//SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum EngineersGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen G, Li T, Wang W, Zhu Z, Chen Z, Tang O (2019) Weakening effects of the presence of water on the brittleness of hard sandstone. Bull Eng Geol Env 78(3):1471–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Silva GPD, Ranjith PG, Perera MSA (2015) Geochemical aspects of CO2, sequestration in deep saline aquifers: a review. Fuel 155:128–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Silva VRS, Ranjith PG, Wu B, Perera MSA (2018) Micro-mechanics based numerical simulation of NaCl brine induced mechanical strength deterioration of sedimentary host-rock formations. Eng Geol 242:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delle Piane C, Sarout J (2016) Effects of water and supercritical CO2 on the mechanical and elastic properties of Berea sandstone. Int J Greenh Gas Control 55:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DOE (2007) Carbon sequestration atlas of the united states and Canada, pp 1–90Google Scholar
  14. Feng G, Kang Y, Meng T, Hu YQ, Li XH (2017) The influence of temperature on mode I fracture toughness and fracture characteristics of sandstone. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(8):2007–2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaus I (2010) Role and impact of CO2–rock interactions during CO2 storage in sedimentary rocks. Int J Greenh Gas Control 4(1):73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hangx S, Linden AVD, Marcelis F, Bauer A (2013) The effect of CO2 on the mechanical properties of the captain sandstone, geological storage of CO2 at the Goldeneye field (UK). Int J Greenh Gas Control 19(4):609–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hangx SJT, Pluymakers A, Ten Hove A, Spiers CJ (2014) Effects of lateral variations in rock composition and texture on anhydrite caprock integrity of CO2 storage systems. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 69:80–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hellevang H, Aagaard P (2013) Can the long-term potential for carbonatization and safe long-term CO2 storage in sedimentary formations be predicted? Appl Geochem 39:108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hewage SMSK, Perera MSA, Elsworth D, Ranjith PG, Matthai SK, Rathnaweera T (2018) Experimental investigation on the mechanical behaviour of Victorian brown coal under brine saturation. Energy Fuels 32(5):5799–5811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang YH, Yang SQ, Zhang CS (2017) Strength failure behavior of granite containing two holes under Brazilian test. Geomech Eng 12(6):919–933Google Scholar
  21. Huang YH, Yang SQ, Hall MR, Zhang YC (2018a) The effects of NaCl concentration and confining pressure on mechanical and acoustic behaviors of brine-saturated sandstone. Energies 11:385.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang YH, Yang SQ, Hall MR (2018b) Fracture and strain field evolution in faulted brine-saturated sandstone. J Test Eval.  https://doi.org/10.1520/JTE20170524 Google Scholar
  23. IPCC Climate Change 2013 (2013) The physical science basis, contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. Kataoka M, Obara Y, Kuruppu M (2015) Estimation of fracture toughness of anisotropic rocks by semi-circular bend (SCB) tests under water vapor pressure. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48(4):1353–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim S, Santamarina J (2014) CO2 geological storage: hydro-chemo-mechanical analyses and implications. Greenh Gases: Sci Technol 4(4):528–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koenen M, Tambach TJ, Neele FP (2011) Geochemical effects of impurities in CO2 on a sandstone reservoir. Energy Procedia 4:5343–5349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuruppu MD, Obara Y, Ayatollahi MR, Chong KP, Funatsu T (2014) SRM-suggested method for determining the mode I static fracture toughness using semi-circular bend specimen. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47(1):267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lagneau V, Pipart A, Catalette H (2005) Reactive transport modelling and long term behaviour of CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Oil Gas Sci Technol 60(2):231–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lake LW (1989) Enhanced oil recovery. Richardson, TX: Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum EngineersGoogle Scholar
  30. Lamy-Chappuis B, Angus D, Fisher Q, Grattoni C, Yardley BWD (2014) Rapid porosity and permeability changes of calcareous sandstone due to CO2-enrich brine injection. Geophys Res Lett 41(2):399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lamy-Chappuis B, Angus D, Fisher QJ, Yardley BWD (2016) The effect of CO2-enriched brine injection on the mechanical properties of calcite-bearing sandstone. Int J Greenh Gas Control 52:84–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li D, Wong LNY, Liu G, Zhang X (2012) Influence of water content and anisotropy on the strength and deformability of low porosity meta-sedimentary rocks under triaxial compression. Eng Geol 126:46–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li Q, Liu G, Liu X, Li X (2013) Application of a health, safety, and environmental screening and ranking framework to the Shenhua CCS project. Int J Greenh Gas Control 17(5):504–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lin H, Fujii T, Takisawa R, Takahashi T, Hashida T (2008) Experimental evaluation of interactions in supercritical CO2/water/rock minerals system under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions. J Mater Sci 43(7):2307–2315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liteanu E, Spiers CJ, De Bresser JHP (2013) The influence of water and supercritical CO2 on the failure behavior of chalk. Tectonophysics 599:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu M, Bai B, Li X (2014) Experimental studies on the short term effect of CO2 on the tensile failure of sandstone. Energy Procedia 63:3357–3363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lombard JM, Azaroual M, Pironon J, Broseta D, Mouronval G (2010) CO2 injectivity in geological storages: an overview of program and results of the geocarbone-injectivity project. Oil Gas Sci Technol 65(65):533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lyu Q, Ranjith PG, Long X, Ji B (2016) Experimental investigation of mechanical properties of black shales after CO2–water–rock interaction. Materials 9(8):663.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9080663 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lyu Q, Long X, Ranjith PG, Tan J, Kang Y (2018) Experimental investigation on the mechanical behaviours of a low-clay shale under water-based fluids. Eng Geol 233:124–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ma D, Cai X, Li Q, Duan HY (2018) In-situ and numerical investigation of groundwater inrush hazard from grouted karst collapse pillar in longwall mining. Water 10:1187.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Major JR, Eichhubl P, Dewers TA, Urquhart AS, Olson JE, Holder J (2014) The Effect of CO2-related diagenesis on geomechanical failure parameters: fracture testing of CO2-altered reservoir and seal rocks from a natural analog at Crystal Geyser. Am Rock Mech Assoc, Utah, pp 14–7463Google Scholar
  42. Mangane PO, Gouze P, Luquot L (2013) Permeability impairment of a limestone reservoir triggered by heterogeneous dissolution and particles migration during CO2-rich injection. Geophys Res Lett 40(17):4614–4619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marbler H, Erickson KP, Schmidt M, Lempp C, Pöllmann H (2013) Geomechanical and geochemical effects on sandstones caused by the reaction with supercritical CO2: an experimental approach to in situ conditions in deep geological reservoirs. Environ Earth Sci 69(6):1981–1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Matter JM, Takahashi T, Goldberg D (2013) Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: implications for geological CO2 sequestration. Geochem Geophys Geosyst.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006gc001427 Google Scholar
  45. Mohamed I, He J, Nasr-El-Din H (2013) Experimental analysis of CO2 injection on permeability of vuggy carbonate aquifers. J Energy Res Technol 135:013301–1–013301-7.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4007799 Google Scholar
  46. Nguyen P, Fadaei H, Sinton D (2013) Microfluidics underground: a micro-core method for pore scale analysis of supercritical CO2 reactive transport in saline aquifers. ASME J Energy Res Technol 135(2):021203Google Scholar
  47. Oikawa Y, Takehara T, Tosha T (2008) Effect of CO2 injection on mechanical properties of berea sandstone. The 42nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium (USRMS). American Rock Mechanics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  48. Ojala IO (2011) The effect of CO2 on the mechanical properties of reservoir and cap rock. Energy Procedia 4:5392–5397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pawar R, Byrer C, Grigg R et al (2004) Geologic sequestration of CO2 in west pear queen field results of a field demonstration project. In: Proceedings of the 3rd annual conference on carbon capture and sequestration, Alesandria, VAGoogle Scholar
  50. Ranjith PG, Jasinge D, Choi SK, Mehic M, Shannon B (2010) The effect of CO2 saturation on mechanical properties of Australian black coal using acoustic emission. Fuel 89(8):2110–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rathnaweera TD, Ranjith PG, Perera MSA (2014) Salinity-dependent strength and stress–strain characteristics of reservoir rocks in deep saline aquifers: an experimental study. Fuel 122:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rathnaweera TD, Ranjith PG, Perera MSA, Haque A, Lashin A, Arifi NA, Chandrasekharam D, Yang SQ, Xu T, Wang SH, Yasar E (2015a) CO2-induced mechanical behaviour of Hawkesbury sandstone in the Gosford basin: an experimental study. Mater Sci Eng, A 641:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rathnaweera TD, Ranjith PG, Perera MSA, Yang SQ (2015b) Determination of effective stress parameters for effective CO2 permeability in deep saline aquifers: an experimental study. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 24:64–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rathnaweera TD, Haque A, Perera MSA, Ranjith PG (2016a) Influence of CO2-brine co-injection on CO2 storage capacity enhancement in deep saline aquifers: an experimental study on Hawkesbury sandstone formation. Energy Fuels 30(5):4229–4243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rathnaweera TD, Ranjith PG, Perera MSA (2016b) Experimental investigation of geochemical and mineralogical effects of CO2 sequestration on flow characteristics of reservoir rock in deep saline aquifers. Sci Rep 6:19362.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep19362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rohmer J, Pluymakers A, Renard F (2016) Mechano–chemical interactions in sedimentary rocks in the context of CO2 storage: weak acid, weak effects? Earth Sci Rev 157:86–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rosenbauer RJ, Koksalan T, Palandri JL (2005) Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers. Fuel Process Technol 86(14):1581–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Roy GD, Vishal V, Singh T (2016) Effect of carbon dioxide sequestration on the mechanical properties of Deccan basalt. Environ Earth Sci 75:771.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5587-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Soong Y, Goodman AL, Mccarthy-Jones JR, Baltrus JP (2004) Experimental and simulation studies on mineral trapping of CO2 with brine. Energy Convers Manag Energy Convers Manag 45(11):1845–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Streit JE, Hillis RR (2004) Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock. Energy 29(9):1445–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sun Y, Aman M, Espinoza DN (2016) Assessment of mechanical rock alteration caused by CO2–water mixtures using indentation and scratch experiments. Int J Greenh Gas Control 45:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tang S (2018) The effects of water on the strength of black sandstone in a brittle regime. Eng Geol 239:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Torp T, Gale J (2004) Demonstrating storage of CO2 in geological reservoirs: the sleipner and sacs projects. Energy 29:1361–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vásárhelyi B, Ván P (2006) Influence of water content on the strength of rock. Eng Geol 84:70–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wigand M, Carey JW, Schütt H, Spangenberg E, Erzinger J (2008) Geochemical effects of CO2 sequestration in sandstones under simulated in situ conditions of deep saline aquifers. Appl Geochem 23(9):2735–2745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wong LNY, Jong MC (2014) Water saturation effects on the Brazilian tensile strength of gypsum and assessment of cracking processes using high-speed video. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47(4):1103–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Xu T, Apps JA, Pruess K, Yamamoto H (2007) Numerical modeling of injection and mineral trapping of CO2 with H2S and SO2 in a sandstone formation. Chem Geol 242(3–4):319–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yang F, Tang B, Tang D, Shari DN, David W (2010) Characteristics of CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Pet Sci 7(1):83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yang SQ, Ju Y, Gao F, Gui YL (2016) Strength, deformability and X-ray micro-CT observations of deeply buried marble under different confining pressures. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:4227–4244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yang SQ, Huang YH, Ranjith PG (2018) Failure mechanical and acoustic behavior of brine saturated-sandstone containing two pre-existing flaws under different confining pressures. Eng Fract Mech 193:108–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zheng H, Feng XT, Pan PZ (2015) Experimental investigation of sandstone properties under CO2–NaCl solution–rock interactions. Int J Greenh Gas Control 37:451–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhou X, Zeng Z, Liu H, Alyssa B (2009) Laboratory testing on geomechanical properties of carbonate rocks for CO2 sequestration. In: 43rd US Rock Mechanics Symposium & 4th US-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium. American Rock Mechanics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhou H, Hu D, Zhang F, Shao J, Feng X (2016) Laboratory investigations of the hydro-mechanical–chemical coupling behaviour of sandstone in CO2 storage in aquifers. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(2):417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhou ZL, Cai X, Ma D, Du XM, Chen L, Wang HQ, Zang HZ (2019) Water saturation effects on dynamic fracture behavior of sandstone. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 114:46–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zou Y, Li S, Ma X, Zhang S, Li N, Chen M (2018) Effects of CO2–brine–rock interaction on porosity/permeability and mechanical properties during supercritical-CO2 fracturing in shale reservoirs. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 49:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Resources and GeosciencesChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.GeoEnergy Research Centre, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Nottingham, University ParkNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations