Advertisement

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 11, pp 4421–4437 | Cite as

Strength Parameters of Debris Using a Large Shear Box Apparatus: Application to a Case History

  • S. Vannucci
  • G. D’Amato Avanzi
  • Y. Galanti
  • R. Giannecchini
  • D. Lo Presti
  • P. P. CapilleriEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The paper shows the back-analysis results of a shallow landslide occurred on 10 November 2014. A very intense rainfall (that occurred after a prolonged rainy period) caused a number of landslides in the area of Leivi (Liguria, Northern Italy). The considered slope consists of shallow debris overlying the bedrock (Argille a Palombini). The analyses were carried out using the limit equilibrium method. Debris characterization was carried out by means of direct shear tests. For such a purpose, direct shear tests on large specimens were carried out using a large shear box (300 × 300 × 100 mm). The specimens were reconstituted in the laboratory using the soil collected just above the sliding surface. The direct shear tests were performed to determine the effective strength parameters according to different density and water content. Direct shear test results showed that the friction angle values decrease and the cohesion increases, as water content increases. Furthermore, previous geological and geomorphological studies of the area affected by landslides were used to define the study model.

Keywords

Friction angle Shallow landslide Large shear box Effective strength parameters Partial saturation 

Notes

References

  1. Abbate E, Aiello I, Bortolotti V, Cortesogno L, Galbiati G, Mannori G, Marroni M, Meccheri M, Piccini L, Principi G, Vercesi G, Bartolini C (2011) Carta Geologica Regionale della Liguria alla scala 1:25.000. Foglio 232.4-Sestri Levante. https://geoportal.regione.liguria.it/
  2. AGI (1994) Raccomandazioni sulle prove geotecniche di laboratorioGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM D1557 (2007) Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using modified effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)). ASTM International, West Conshohocken.  https://doi.org/10.1520/D1557-07 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM D3080/D3080M (2011) Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained conditions. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.  https://doi.org/10.1520/D3080_D3080M-11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM D4254 (2012) Test methods for minimum index density and unit weight of soils and calculation of relative density. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM D4644 (2016a) Standard test method for slake durability of shales and other similar weak rocks. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.  https://doi.org/10.1520/D4644-16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ASTM D4644 (2016b) Test method for slake durability of shales and other similar weak rocks. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  8. Baligh MM (1976) Cavity expansion in sands with curved envelopes. J Geotech Eng Div 111(GT9):1108–1136Google Scholar
  9. Bareither CA, Benson CH, Edil TB (2008) Comparison of shear strength of sand backfills measured in small-scale and large-scale direct shear tests. Can Geotech J 45(9):1224–1236.  https://doi.org/10.1139/T08-058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bishop AW (1948) A large shear box for testing sands and gravels. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 21–30 June 1948, pp 207–211Google Scholar
  11. Bishop AW, Henkel DJ (1962) The measurement of soil properties in the triaxial test, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Cascini L, Calvello M, Grimaldi GM (2010) Groundwater modelling for the analysis of active slow-moving landslides. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 136(9):1220–1230.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cerato AB, Lutenegger AJ (2006) Specimen size and scale effects of direct shear box tests on sand. Geotech Test J 29(6):507–516.  https://doi.org/10.1520/GTJ100312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cevasco A, Pepe G, D’Amato Avanzi G, Giannecchini R (2015) A study on the 10 November 2014 intense rainfall and the related landslides in the lower Lavagna valley (eastern Liguria). Rend Online Soc Geol Ital 35:66–69.  https://doi.org/10.3301/ROL.2015.65 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cevasco A, Pepe G, D’Amato Avanzi G, Giannecchini R (2017) Preliminary analysis of the 10 November 2014 rainstorm and the related landslides in the lower Lavagna Valley (Eastern Liguria). Ital J Eng Geol Environ Spec Issue 1:5–15.  https://doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2017-01.S-01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. COCIV (2013) Relazione geotecnica, Tratta AV/AC, Consorzio Collegamenti Integrati VelociGoogle Scholar
  17. Crosta G (1998) Rainfall threshold regionalization: an aid for landslide susceptibility zonation. Environ Geol 35(2/3):131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crosta GB, Frattini P (2003) Distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 3:81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crosta GB, Dal Negro P, Frattini P (2003) Soil slips and debris flows on terraced slopes. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 3:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cruden DM, Varnes DJ (1996) Landslide type and processes. In: Turner AK, Schuster RL (eds) Landslides: investigation and mitigation. Journal of Maps 151 Special Report 247, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, pp 36–75Google Scholar
  21. D’Amato Avanzi G, Giannecchini R, Puccinelli A (2004) The influence of the geological and geomorphological settings on shallow landslides. An example in a temperate climate environment: the June 19, 1996 event in the northwestern Tuscany (Italy). Eng Geol 73(3–4):215–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. D’Amato Avanzi G, Galanti Y, Giannecchini R, Lo Presti D, Puccinelli A (2013) Estimation of soil properties of shallow landslide source areas by dynamic penetration tests: first outcomes from Northern Tuscany (Italy). Bull Eng Geol Environ 72:609–624.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-013-0535-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dadkhah R, Ghafoori M, Ajalloeian R, Lashkaripour GR (2010) The Effect of scale direct shear test on the strength parameters of clayey sand in Isfahan City, Iran. J Appl Sci 10(18):2027–2033.  https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2010.2027.2033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dyer MR (1985) Observation of stress distribution in crushed glass with application to soil reinforcement. Dissertation, University of OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. ETC5 (1995) Raccomandazioni Europee sulle prove geotecniche di laboratorioGoogle Scholar
  26. Fragaszy RJ, Su J, Siddiqi FH, Ho CL (1992) Modeling strength of sandy gravel. J Geotech Eng 118(6):920–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Galanti Y, Barsanti M, Cevasco A, D’Amato Avanzi G, Giannecchini R (2018) Comparison of statistical methods and multi-time validation for the determination of the shallow landslide rainfall thresholds. Landslides 15:937–952.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-017-0919-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gariano SL, Guzzetti F (2016) Landslides in a changing climate. Earth Sci Rev J 162:227–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.08.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giannecchini R, D’Amato Avanzi G (2012) Historical research as a tool in estimating the flood/landslide hazard in a typical small alpine-like area: the example of the Versilia River basin (Apuan Alps, Italy). J Phys Chem Earth 49:32–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2011.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Giannecchini R, Galanti Y, D’Amato Avanzi G (2012) Critical rainfall thresholds for triggering shallow landslides in the Serchio River Valley (Tuscany, Italy). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:829–842.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-829-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Giannecchini R, Galanti Y, Barsanti M (2015) Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for triggering shallow landslides in the Eastern Ligurian Riviera (Italy). In: Lollino G et al (eds) Engineering geology for society and territory, vol 2. Springer, Cham, pp 1581–1584.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09057-3_281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guzzetti F, Stark CP, Salvati P (2005) Evaluation of flood and landslide risk to the population of Italy. Environ Manag 36:15–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-0257-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Janbu N (1954) Stability analysis of slopes with dimensionless parameters. Harv Soil Mech Ser 46:1954Google Scholar
  34. Jewell RA (1980) Some effects of reinforcement on the mechanical behaviour of soils. PhD Thesis, Cambridge UniversityGoogle Scholar
  35. Lo Presti D, Froio F (2004) Residual strength of soft rock and fine grained soils. Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica 3:48–84 (Italian and English) Google Scholar
  36. Moayed RZ, Alizadeh A (2011) Effects of shear box size on the strength for different type of silty sands in direct shear tests. In: Unsaturated soils: theory and practice, Kasetsart University, Thailand, pp 265–271Google Scholar
  37. Montrasio L, Valentino R (2008) A model for triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 8:1149–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Montrasio L, Valentino R, Losi GL, Meisina C (2010) Time-space distribution of shallow landslides induced by rainfalls in the area of Oltrepò Pavese, Northern Italy. In: Mountain risks international conference 24–26 Nov 2010 Florence. CERG Editions, pp 147–153Google Scholar
  39. Morgenstern NR, Price VE (1965) The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces. Géothecnique 15(79–93):1965Google Scholar
  40. Nenci N (2018) Uso di apparecchiature innovative per la parametrizzazione geotecnica finalizzata a verifiche di stabilità delle coperture detritiche. Scuola di Scienza della Terra, Università di PisaGoogle Scholar
  41. Pallara O (2016) Personal communication to Lo PrestiGoogle Scholar
  42. Palmeira EM (1987) The study of soil reinforcement interaction by mans of large scale laboratory tests. Ph D. Thesis. The University of OxfordGoogle Scholar
  43. Palmeria EM, Milligan GWE (1989) Scale effects in direct shear tests on sand. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 13–18 August 1989Google Scholar
  44. Parsons JD (1936) Progress report on an investigation of the shearing resistance of cohesionless soils. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, vol 2, pp 133–138Google Scholar
  45. Potts DM, Dounias GT, Vaughan PR (1987) Finite element analysis of the direct shear box test. Geotecnicque 37(1):11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Raviolo PL (1993) Il laboratorio geotecnico-procedure di prova, elaborazione, acquisizione dati, Editrice ControlsGoogle Scholar
  47. Renzi V, Uchimura T, Lo Presti D, Liu B, Eto I (2014) A comparison between two different approaches toward landslide monitoring. In: International symposium on geohazard, 20–21 November 2014 Kathmandu, NepalGoogle Scholar
  48. Rinaldi M (2015) Le frane di Leivi (GE) del Novembre 2014: studio focalizzato sul versante meridionale in frana, Tesi di laurea A.A. 2014–2015Google Scholar
  49. Salvati P, Bianchi C, Fiorucci P, Giostrella I, Marchesini I, Guzzetti F (2014a) Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 14:2589–2603.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-2589-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Salvati P, Bianchi C, Rossi M, Guzzetti F (2014b) Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:465–483.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-465-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sarni G (2016) Sviluppo dell’apparecchiatura di taglio di grandi dimensioni. Tesi di Laurea Triennale Scuola di Ingegneria Università di PisaGoogle Scholar
  52. Silvestro F, Rebora F, Giannoni A, Cavallo L, Ferraris C (2015) The flash flood of the Bisagno Creek on 9th October 2014: an “unfortunate” combination of spatial and temporal scales. J Hydrol 541(Part A):50–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Simoni A, Houlsby GT (2006) The direct shear strength and dilatancy of sand–gravel mixtures. Geotech Geol Eng 24(3):523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tatsuoka F (1988) State-of-the-art paper: some recent developments in triaxial testing systems for cohesionless soils. In: Advanced triaxial testing of soil and rock. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  55. Taylor DW, Leps TM (1938) Shearing properties of Ottawa standard sand as determined by the MIT strain-controlled direct shearing machine. In: Record of proceedings of conference on soils and foundations, US Corps of Engineers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  56. Vannucci S (2016) Analisi teorico-sperimentale dei fenomeni di instabilità delle coperture detritiche. Tesi di Laurea Magistrale, Scuola di Ingegneria, Università di PisaGoogle Scholar
  57. Wu PK, Matsushima K, Tatsuoka F (2008) Effects of specimen size and some other factors on the strength and deformation of granular soil in direct shear tests. Geotech Test J 31(1):45–64Google Scholar
  58. Zanetti B (2016) Indagini sperimentali di laboratorio per un’apparecchiatura di taglio di grandi dimensioni Tesi di Laurea Triennale Scuola di Ingegneria Università di PisaGoogle Scholar
  59. Ziaie Moayed R, Alibolandi M, Alizadeh A (2017) Specimen size effects on direct shear test of silty sands. Int J Geotech Eng 11(2):198–205Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Pisa, Largo Lucio LazzarinoPisaItaly
  2. 2.Earth Sciences DepartmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations