Advertisement

Mechanical Properties of Basalt Specimens Under Combined Compression and Shear Loading at Low Strain Rates

  • Qingyuan He
  • Yingchun LiEmail author
  • Sa She
Technical Note
  • 168 Downloads

Introduction

Previous studies on pillar stability focus on estimation of pillar strength and evaluation of pillar burst proneness. Pillar axes were commonly assumed parallel to the vertical in situ principal stress direction (Zhang et al. 2016). In this ideal situation, pillars are under pure compressive loading. This deviates from the real situation that mining pillars are often loaded in combined compression and shear, such as the loading conditions of inclined pillars in coal mining (Wei 2014). Pariseau ( 1982) sheds light on the importance of the dip angle of a flat, tabular orebody on pillar strength and proposed a factor of safety formula considering pillar shear strength as well as shear loading. Foroughi and Vutukuri ( 1997) realized that the existence of shear loading complicates estimation of pillar stability in inclined coal seams. Suorineni et al. ( 2011) identified the oblique loading of the maximum in situ principal stress on orebodies as a cause of rock bursts. The...

Keywords

Pillar stability Specimen inclination Inclined UCS test Combined compression and shear loading 

List of symbols

σ

Axial stress applied to the specimen in the conventional UCS test (MPa)

σ1

Maximum in situ principal stress (MPa)

σθ

Axial stress applied to the specimen in the inclined UCS test (MPa)

ɛ

Specimen axial strain in the conventional UCS test, 1

εθ

Specimen axial strain in the inclined UCS test, 1

θ

Specimen inclination angle (°)

A

Initial specimen cross-section area (m2)

d

Displacement between two platens of the MTS (m)

F

Loading force applied perpendicular to the specimen surface (N)

l

Initial specimen length (m)

l1

Distance between two platens of the MTS before the inclined UCS test (m)

l2

Distance between two platens of the MTS after the inclined UCS test (m)

R2

Coefficient of determination, 1

Abbreviations

C-CAST

Combined compression and shear test

MTS

Material testing system

SHPB

Split Hopkinson pressure bar

UCS

Uniaxial compressive strength

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work of this paper is financially supported by the Jiangsu Province Science Foundation for Youths (Grant number: BK20180658), State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining (Grant number: SKLCRSM18X009), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant number: 2018M632422). The authors would like to acknowledge Professor Fidelis Suorineni for his contribution to developing the C-CAST system and Professor Herbert Einstein for his constructive comments and suggestions that substantially improve the quality of the manuscript.

References

  1. Atsushi S, Mitri HS (2017) Numerical investigation into pillar failure induced by time-dependent skin degradation. Int J Min Sci Technol 27:591–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergonnier S, Hild F, Rieunier J-B, Roux S (2005a) Strain heterogeneities and local anisotropy in crimped glass wool. J Mater Sci 40:5949–5954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergonnier S, Hild F, Roux S (2005b) Digital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples. J Strain Anal Eng Des 40:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bieniawski ZT (1967a) Mechanism of brittle fracture of rock: Part I—theory of the fracture process. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 4:395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bieniawski ZT (1967b) Mechanism of brittle fracture of rock: Part II—experimental studies. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 4:407–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bieniawski Z (1968) Propagation of Brittle Fracture in Rock. In: The 10th US symposium on rock mechanics. American Rock Mechanics Association, Austin, Texas, pp 409–427Google Scholar
  7. Bieniawski ZT, Bernede MJ (1979) Suggested methods for determining the uniaxial compressive strength and deformability of rock materials: Part 1. Suggested method for determining deformability of rock materials in uniaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 16:138–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brace WF, Bombolakis EG (1963) A note on brittle crack growth in compression. J Geophys Res 68:3709–3713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brace W, Byerlee J (1966) Recent experimental studies of brittle fracture of rocks. In: The 10th US symposium on rock mechanics. American Rock Mechanics Association, Austin, Texas, pp 58–81Google Scholar
  10. Brady BH, Brown ET (2013) Rock mechanics: for underground mining. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Cai M, Kaiser PK, Tasaka Y, Maejima T, Morioka H, Minami M (2004) Generalized crack initiation and crack damage stress thresholds of brittle rock masses near underground excavations. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:833–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang SH, Lee CI (2004) Estimation of cracking and damage mechanisms in rock under triaxial compression by moment tensor analysis of acoustic emission. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:1069–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deliveris AV, Andreas B (2017) Evaluating performance of lignite pillars with 2D approximation techniques and 3D numerical analyses. Int J Min Sci Technol 27:929–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foroughi M, Vutukuri V (1997) Estimating elastic pillar stresses in inclined coal seams. Trans-Soc Min Metall Explor Inc 302:50–54Google Scholar
  15. Griffith A (1924) The theory of rupture. In: Proceedings of the first international congress for applied mechanics, pp 55–63Google Scholar
  16. Hao R, Cao P, Chen Y, Jin J, Wang H, Fan X (2018) Mechanical and propagating behaviors of single-flawed rock samples with hydraulic pressure and uniaxial compression conditions. Int J Geomech 18:04018078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoek E, Bieniawski ZT (1965) Brittle fracture propagation in rock under compression. Int J Fract 1:137–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hudson JA, Brown ET, Fairhurst C (1972) Shape of the complete stress-strain curve for rock. In: 13th U.S. symposium on rock mechanics. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp 773–795Google Scholar
  19. Hustrulid W (1976) A review of coal pillar strength formulas. Rock Mech 8:115–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jaeger JC (1966) Brittle fracture of rocks. In: The 8th U.S. symposium on rock mechanics. American Rock Mechanics Association, Minneapolis, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  21. Kahraman S (2001) Evaluation of simple methods for assessing the uniaxial compressive strength of rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 38:981–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liyanapathirana DS, Carter J, Airey D (2005) Numerical modeling of nonhomogeneous behavior of structured soils during triaxial tests. Int J Geomech 5:10–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma T, Suorineni FT, Tang C, Wang L (2016a) Numerical simulation on pillar failure patterns. In: Proceedings of the ISRM-EUROCK2016: rock mechanics and rock engineering: from the past to the future, 29–31 August, Ürgüp, Turkey, pp 373–377Google Scholar
  24. Ma T, Wang L, Suorineni FT, Tang C (2016b) Numerical analysis on failure modes and mechanisms of mine pillars under shear loading. Shock Vibrat 26(2016):1–14Google Scholar
  25. Mahabadi O, Kaifosh P, Marschall P, Vietor T (2014) Three-dimensional FDEM numerical simulation of failure processes observed in Opalinus Clay laboratory samples. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 6:591–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin C, Maybee W (2000) The strength of hard-rock pillars. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 37:1239–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McClintock FA, Walsh JB (1963) Friction on griffith cracks in rocks under pressure. In: The fourth U.S. congress on applied mechanics. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, pp 1015–1021Google Scholar
  28. Mohan GM, Sheorey P, Kushwaha A (2001) Numerical estimation of pillar strength in coal mines. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 38:1185–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mortazavi A, Hassani F, Shabani M (2009) A numerical investigation of rock pillar failure mechanism in underground openings. Comput Geotech 36:691–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Müller C, Lerch C, Otparlik K, Konietzky H (2012) Simulation of the mechanical deterioration of rock salt at grain scale. Mech Behav Salt VII:107Google Scholar
  31. Nicksiar M, Martin CD (2014) Factors affecting crack initiation in low porosity crystalline rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47:1165–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nie X, Chen WW, Sun X, Templeton DW (2007) Dynamic failure of borosilicate glass under compression/shear loading experiments. J Am Ceram Soc 90:2556–2562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pariseau WG (1982) Shear stability of mine pillars in dipping seams. In: The 23rd U.S. symposium on rock mechanics (USRMS). American Rock Mechanics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  34. Scholz CH (1968) Experimental study of the fracturing process in brittle rock. J Geophys Res 73:1447–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sun X, Liu W, Chen W, Templeton D (2009) Modeling and characterization of dynamic failure of borosilicate glass under compression/shear loading. Int J Impact Eng 36:226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Suorineni FT (1998) Effects of faults and stress on open stope design. PhD thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  37. Suorineni F, Kaiser P, Mgumbwa JJ, Thibodeau D (2011) Mining of orebodies under shear loading Part 1–case histories. Min Technol 120:137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suorineni F, Mgumbwa J, Kaiser J, Thibodeau D (2014) Mining of orebodies under shear loading Part 2–failure modes and mechanisms. Min Technol 123:240–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ulusay R (2014) The ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring: 2007–2014. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Van As A, Jeffrey R (2002) Hydraulic fracture growth in naturally fractured rock: mine through mapping and analysis, 5th North American rock mechanics symposium. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp 1461–1469Google Scholar
  41. Walsh JB (1965) The effect of cracks on the uniaxial elastic compression of rocks. J Geophys Res 70:399–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang H, Poulsen BA, Shen B, Xue S, Jiang Y (2011) The influence of roadway backfill on the coal pillar strength by numericalinvestigation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 48:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wawersik W, Fairhurst C (1970) A study of brittle rock fracture in laboratory compression experiments. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 7(5):561–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wei G (2014) Study on the width of the non-elastic zone in inclined coal pillar for strip mining. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 72:304–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xie H, Li L, Peng R, Ju Y (2009) Energy analysis and criteria for structural failure of rocks. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 1:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Xu Y, Dai F (2018) Dynamic response and failure mechanism of brittle rocks under combined compression-shear loading experiments. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:747–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Xu S, Huang J, Wang P, Zhang C, Zhou L, Hu S (2015) Investigation of rock material under combined compression and shear dynamic loading: an experimental technique. Int J Impact Eng 86:206–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang Y, Ren F, Zhao X (2016) Characterization of joint set effect on rock pillars using synthetic rock mass numerical method. Int J Geomech 17:06016026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhao PD, Lu FY, Chen R, Sun GL, Lin YL, Li JL, Lu L (2011) A new technique for combined dynamic compression-shear test. In: Proceedings of the SEM annual conference. Springer New York, Indianapolis, Indiana USA, pp 417–424Google Scholar
  50. Zhao PD, Lu FY, Lin YL, Chen R, Li JL, Lu L (2012) Technique for combined dynamic compression-shear testing of PBXs. Exp Mech 52:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhao XG, Cai M, Wang J, Ma LK (2013) Damage stress and acoustic emission characteristics of the Beishan granite. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 64:258–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhou XP, Bi J (2016) 3D numerical study on the growth and coalescence of pre-existing flaws in rocklike materials subjected to uniaxial compression. Int J Geomech 16:04015096CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, School of MinesChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  3. 3.School of Minerals and Energy Resources EngineeringUNSW SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations