Precursor of Spatio-temporal Evolution Law of MS and AE Activities for Rock Burst Warning in Steeply Inclined and Extremely Thick Coal Seams Under Caving Mining Conditions

  • Shengquan He
  • Dazhao Song
  • Zhenlei Li
  • Xueqiu He
  • Jianqiang Chen
  • Donghui Li
  • Xianghui Tian
Original Paper


Rock burst is one of the main coal and rock dynamic disasters in steeply inclined and extremely thick coal seams (SIETCS). Timely identification of potential precursor information enables effective and specifically targeted measures to mitigate hazards. To provide a reference for the determination of precursor information in SIETCS with similar conditions, an in situ investigation that lasted for more than 1 year was conducted on the + 450 horizontal no. B3 + 6 fully mechanized top-coal caving face of the Wudong coal mine. This mine has an average dip angle of 87° and experienced a total of three rock bursts. The investigation focused on the consequences of rock burst (including the source location, energy, damage range, and modes of ensuing damage), the temporal and spatial evolution laws of the monitoring parameters of microseismic (MS) and acoustic emissions (AE), and the relationship between precursory information of both the AE and MS monitoring systems. Furthermore, a comparison of the evolution laws of the precursory characteristics between steeply and gently inclined coal seams was conducted. The obtained results indicate that rock burst failure mainly shows a directionality from south to north of the roadway, and the main factor causing the rock burst was the suspended rock pillar. Prior to the rock burst, sources of MS events gradually clustered and congregated around the rock pillar or coalface, and high-energy events (energy > 103 J) noticeably increased. Similar variations of sharp rise–sharp drop were found for both daily total energy and event counts. Prior to rock burst or large energy mine tremors, the AE energy deviation continued to rise, a peak was observed in the total number of high-value daily AE deviations, and the precursory information of AE was ahead of the precursory information of the MS monitoring system. The evolution laws of MS precursor information prior to rock burst differed between SIETCS and gently inclined coal seams. These evolution laws can be used as precursory warning for rock burst in SIETCS. Integrated monitoring of the AE and MS monitoring systems realizes the real-time monitoring and early warning from the germination stage to the occurrence of rock burst, and can determine the danger area in space. This can improve the early warning efficiency and provides a solid foundation for safe mining in SIETCS.


Rock burst Steeply inclined and extremely thick coal seam Microseismic Precursor information Spatio-temporal evolution Early warning 





Acoustic emission


Electromagnetic radiation


Wudong coal mine


Steeply inclined and extremely thick coal seam

List of symbols


Daily total energy


Acoustic emission (AE) energy of the current moment


Mean value of the AE energy of all AE events within 24 h preceding the current time


Energy deviation

Dt i

The ith energy deviation calculated for the day


Judgment result corresponding to the ith energy deviation of the day


Threshold of the energy deviation value


Total number of MS events that occur daily


Total number of daily AE energy deviations


Total number of deviation values on each day that exceed the threshold value



Special thanks should be extended to Wudong coal mine for the provided raw data. This work was supported, and financed, by the State Key Research Development Programme of China (no. 2016YFC0801408), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 51634001, 51774023).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shengquan He
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dazhao Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhenlei Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xueqiu He
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jianqiang Chen
    • 4
  • Donghui Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xianghui Tian
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Civil and Resources EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal MineUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  3. 3.Zhong-an Academy of Safety EngineeringBeijingChina
  4. 4.Shenhua Xinjiang Energy Company LimitedUrumqiChina

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