Advertisement

Acoustic Emission Associated with Self-Sustaining Failure in Low-Porosity Sandstone Under Uniaxial Compression

  • Shihuai Zhang
  • Shunchuan Wu
  • Chaoqun Chu
  • Pei Guo
  • Guang Zhang
Original Paper
  • 49 Downloads

Abstract

Two sets of uniaxial compression tests were conducted on a brittle sandstone under a constant circumferential strain rate (2 × 10−6 s−1) and a constant axial strain rate (2.5 × 10−6 s−1), respectively. A combination of active and passive ultrasonic techniques was implemented to study the effect of the control method on mechanical deformation, ultrasonic P-wave velocity, acoustic emission (AE) characteristics, and the ultrasonic amplitude spectrum. During each test, active surveys were performed at regular time intervals. P-wave velocity was found to be strongly anisotropic and was used for the construction of a time-dependent transversely isotropic velocity model for each specimen. AE data were continuously acquired and digitized at 10 MHz and 16-bits for the duration of each test where four channels were amplified 30 dB and the rest 50 dB. Discrete AE events were harvested from the continuous waveforms and were then used for source location analysis based on the constructed velocity model and the collapsing grid search routine. An analysis of the ultrasonic amplitude spectrum was also performed to relate attenuation to the formation of macroscopic fracture. In addition, the post-peak energy balance was quantitatively estimated by calculating the rupture energy, surplus energy, and residual elastic energy, suggesting a typical self-sustaining failure. Differences in the post-peak energy balance between the two sets of tests are also reflected in the AE magnitude distribution in addition to the failure modes. Finally, the reason for the large amount of missing AE data associated with eventual rupture was investigated, with the conclusion that multiple gain levels should be adopted during brittle failure of rocks.

Keywords

Class II behavior Self-sustaining failure Uniaxial compression test Ultrasonic measurement Acoustic emission Post-peak energy balance 

List of Symbols

We

Elastic energy accumulated in the specimen

dWr

Rupture energy in the post-peak stage

dWs

Surplus energy in the post-peak stage

\({V_{\hbox{max} }}\)

Maximum P-wave velocity

\({V_{\hbox{min} }}\)

Minimum P-wave velocity

\({E_{{\text{RMS}}}}\)

Root mean square (RMS) location error

\({V_{{\text{P-}}{\mathbf{r}}}}\)

P-wave velocity along the raypath \({\mathbf{r}}\)

\({N^P}\)

Number of P-wave arrivals in each survey

\(\Delta {T_i}\)

Difference between the measured and theoretical arrival time

\({\sigma _{{\text{cc}}}}\)

Crack closure stress

\({\sigma _{{\text{ci}}}}\)

Crack initiation stress

\({\sigma _{{\text{cd}}}}\)

Crack damage stress

\({\sigma _p}\)

Peak stress

K1

Brittleness index

N

Cumulative number of AE events with magnitude greater than ML

ML

Location magnitude

\({d_i}\)

Distance between sensor i and the source location

\({W_{{\text{RMSi}}}}\)

Root mean square (RMS) waveform amplitude of the ith sensor

\({W_j}\)

Jth sampling point of waveform amplitude

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51774020) and the Beijing Training Project for the Leading Talent in S & T (Z151100000315014). The authors thank Zhengjun Huang for his kind help with the uniaxial compression tests and Dr. Kang Duan for his helpful discussion.

References

  1. Bieniawski ZT (1967a) Mechanism of brittle fracture of rock: part I—theory of the fracture process. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1976:395–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bieniawski ZT (1967b) Mechanism of brittle fracture of rock: part II—experimental studies. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1976:407–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bieniawski ZT, Bernede MJ (1979) Suggested methods for determining the uniaxial compressive strength and deformability of rock materials: Part 1. Suggested method for determination of the uniaxial compressive strength of rock materials. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 16:138–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brace WF, Paulding BW Jr, Scholz CH (1966) Dilatancy in the fracture of crystalline rocks. J Geophys Res 71:3939–3953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai M, Kaiser PK, Tasaka Y, Maejima T, Morioka H, Minami M (2004) Generalized crack initiation and crack damage stress thresholds of brittle rock masses near underground excavations. Int J Rock Mech Min 41:833–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chow TM, Meglis IL, Young RP (1995) Progressive microcrack development in tests on Lac du Bonnet granite—II. Ultrasonic tomographic imaging. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1995:751–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eberhardt E, Stead D, Stimpson B, Read RS (1998) Identifying crack initiation and propagation thresholds in brittle rock. Can Geotech J 35:222–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fairhurst CE, Hudson JA (1999) Draft ISRM suggested method for the complete stress-strain curve for intact rock in uniaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min 36:279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Falls SD (1995) Ultrasonic imaging and acoustic emission studies of microcrack development in Lac du Bonnet granite. Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  10. Goodfellow SD, Flynn JW, Reyes-Montes JM, Nasseri M, Young RP (2014) Acquisition of complete acoustic emission amplitude records during rock fracture experiments. J Acoust Emiss 32:1–11Google Scholar
  11. Goodfellow SD, Tisato N, Ghofranitabari M, Nasseri MHB, Young RP (2015) Attenuation properties of Fontainebleau sandstone during true-triaxial deformation using active and passive ultrasonics. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:2551–2566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gutenberg G, Richter CF (1950) Seismicity of the earth and associated phenomena, Howard Tatel. J Geophys Res 55:97–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hudson JA, Brown ET, Fairhurst C (1971) Optimizing the control of rock failure in servo-controlled laboratory tests. Rock Mech 3:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hudson JA, Crouch SL, Fairhurst C (1972) Soft, stiff and servo-controlled testing machines: a review with reference to rock failure. Eng Geol 6:155–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lajtai EZ (1974) Brittle fracture in compression. Int J Fract 10:525–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lockner DA, Byerlee JD (1992) Fault growth and acoustic emissions in confined granite. Appl Mech Rev 45:S165–S173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lockner D, Byerlee JD, Kuksenko V, Ponomarev A, Sidorin A (1991) Quasi–static fault growth and shear fracture energy in granite. Nature 350:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martin CD, Chandler NA (1994) The progressive fracture of Lac du Bonnet granite. In Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1994:643–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McGarr A (1997) A mechanism for high wall-rock velocities in rockbursts. Pure Appl Geophys 150:381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Munoz H, Taheri A (2017a) Specimen aspect ratio and progressive field strain development of sandstone under uniaxial compression by three-dimensional digital image correlation. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 9:599–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Munoz H, Taheri A (2017b) Local damage and progressive localisation in porous sandstone during cyclic loading. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50:3253–3259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Munoz H, Taheri A, Chanda EK (2016a) Rock drilling performance evaluation by an energy dissipation based rock brittleness index. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:3343–3355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Munoz H, Taheri A, Chanda EK (2016b) Fracture energy-based brittleness index development and brittleness quantification by pre-peak strength parameters in rock uniaxial compression. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:4587–4606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nicksiar M, Martin CD (2012) Evaluation of methods for determining crack initiation in compression tests on low-porosity rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45:607–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nishizawa O, Onai K, Kusunose K (1984) Hypocenter distribution and focal mechanism of AE events during two stress stage creep in Yugawara andesite. Pure Appl Geophys 122:36–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Okubo S, Nishimatsu Y (1985) Uniaxial compression testing using a linear combination of stress and strain as the control variable. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1985:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Paterson MS, Wong T (2005) Experimental rock deformation—the brittle field. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. Peng J, Cai M, Rong G, Zhou CB, Zhao XG (2015) Crack closure stress and its use for assessing stress-induced microcrack damage. Chin J Rock Mech EngGoogle Scholar
  29. Pettitt WS (1998) Acoustic emission source studies of microcracking in rock. University of Keele, KeeleGoogle Scholar
  30. Pettitt S, Baker C, Young RP, Dahlström L, Ramqvist G (2002) The assessment of damage around critical engineering structures using induced seismicity and ultrasonic techniques. Pure Appl Geophys 159:179–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rudnicki JW, Rice JR (1975) Conditions for the localization of deformation in pressure-sensitive dilatant materials. J Mech Phys Solids 23:371–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sano O, Terada M, Ehara S (1982) A study on the time-dependent microfracturing and strength of Oshima granite. Tectonophysics 84:343–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schubnel A, Thompson BD, Fortin J, Guéguen Y, Young RP (2007) Fluid-induced rupture experiment on Fontainebleau sandstone: premonitory activity, rupture propagation, and aftershocks. Geophys Res Lett 2007:34Google Scholar
  34. Shi L, Li X, Bing B, Wang A, Zeng Z, He H (2017) A Mogi-type true triaxial testing apparatus for rocks with two moveable frames in horizontal layout for providing orthogonal loads. Geotech Test J 40:542–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sondergeld CH, Estey LH (1981) Acoustic emission study of microfracturing during the cyclic loading of Westerly granite. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 86:2915–2924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tarasov B, Potvin Y (2013) Universal criteria for rock brittleness estimation under triaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min 59:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tarasov BG, Randolph MF (2011) Superbrittleness of rocks and earthquake activity. Int J Rock Mech Min 48:888–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tarasov BG, Stacey TR (2017) Features of the energy balance and fragmentation mechanisms at spontaneous failure of Class I and Class II rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50:2563–2584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Terada M, Yanagidani T, Ehara S (1984) AE rate controlled compression test of rocks. 3rd conference on acoustic emission/microseismic activity in geological structures and materials, pp 159–171Google Scholar
  40. Thompson BD, Young RP, Lockner DA (2006) Fracture in Westerly granite under AE feedback and constant strain rate loading: nucleation, quasi–static propagation, and the transition to unstable fracture propagation. Pure Appl Geophys 163:995–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wawersik WR, Fairhurst C (1970) A study of brittle rock fracture in laboratory compression experiments. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1976:561–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weeks J, Lockner D, Byerlee J (1978) Change in b-values during movement on cut surfaces in granite. B Seismol Soc Am 68:333–341Google Scholar
  43. Wen T, Tang H, Ma J, Wang Y (2018) Evaluation of methods for determining crack initiation stress under compression. Eng Geol 235:81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yanagidani T, Ehara S, Nishizawa O, Kusunose K, Terada M (1985) Localization of dilatancy in Ohshima granite under constant uniaxial stress. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 90:6840–6858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang SH, Wu SC, Zhang G, Guo P, Chu CQ (2018) Three-dimensional evolution of damage in sandstone Brazilian discs by the concurrent use of active and passive ultrasonic techniques. Acta Geotech.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-018-0737-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao XG, Cai M, Wang J, Ma LK (2013) Damage stress and acoustic emission characteristics of the Beishan granite. Int J Rock Mech Min 2013:258–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhao XG, Cai M, Wang J, Li PF, Ma LK (2015) Objective determination of crack initiation stress of brittle rocks under compression using AE measurement. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:2473–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ministry for Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal MinesUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Land Resources EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations