Laboratory Pulse Test of Hydraulic Fracturing on Granitic Sample Cores from Äspö HRL, Sweden

  • O. Stephansson
  • H. Semikova
  • G. Zimmermann
  • A. Zang
Technical Note


An extensive hydraulic fracturing monitoring experiment in hard rock is conducted at 410 m depth in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden, and details are described by Zang et al. (2017). Three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse injection) are used to propagate fractures from a horizontal, ca 30-m-deep, 4-inch-diameter diamond-drilled borehole starting at the wall of the experimental tunnel TASN and drilled in the direction of the least horizontal stress. An extensive array of acoustic emission and micro-seismic instruments is installed in long boreholes surrounding the injection borehole. From totally six hydraulic tests with different injection schemes, fracture are generated and extended 20–40 m2into the hard fractured rock mass. Results from three water injection tests and one pulse test show that fracture breakdown pressure becomes lower and the number of fluid-induced seismic events becomes less compared to conventional...


Hydraulic fracturing Pulse hydraulic fracturing Bi-axial testing Granitic rocks 



We acknowledge the technical assistance of O Vanecek, Industrial Safety Assessment Technique, ISATech, Prague, Czech Republic.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Stephansson
    • 1
  • H. Semikova
    • 2
  • G. Zimmermann
    • 3
  • A. Zang
    • 1
  1. 1.Section 2.6 Seismic Hazard and Stress FieldGFZ-German Research Centre for GeosciencesPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.ISATechPrague 7Czech Republic
  3. 3.Section 6.2 Energy SystemsGFZ-German Research Centre for GeosciencesPotsdamGermany

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