Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 49, Issue 7, pp 2811–2823 | Cite as

Detection of Rockfall on a Tunnel Concrete Lining with Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)

  • Anne Lalagüe
  • Matthew A. Lebens
  • Inge Hoff
  • Eivind Grøv
Original Paper


Experiments were conducted using Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). The performance of six GPR systems was assessed in terms of: (1) remotely mapping cavities behind concrete linings, (2) detecting rockfall from the tunnel roof onto an inner lining comprising, for example, precast concrete segments. Studies conducted in Norway and the United States demonstrate that the GPR technique is a simple and reliable method that can assist stability inspection in existing Norwegian tunnels. The ground-coupled GPR systems represent a step forward in the remote detection of rockfall on tunnel concrete linings, and are particularly suited to self-standing inner linings. The analysis of the data is relatively straightforward and reasonably accurate.


Ground-Penetrating Radar GPR Tunneling Concrete lining Loose rocks Safety 



This project was funded by the Norwegian Public Road Administration (NPRA) and the Norwegian National Railway Administration. The authors thank Ine Gressetvold (NPRA) for conceptualizing this project. The authors gratefully acknowledge the field support and resources provided by Maureen Jensen from the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT). Special thanks go to MnDOT Research Engineers Ally Akkari, Dr. Shongtao Dai, Dr. Bernard Izevbekhai and Ben Worel for their guidance and assistance in duplicating the Norwegian concrete mix design. The authors also gratefully acknowledge Jack Herndon, Steve Olson, Len Palek and other MnROAD Engineers and Technical Experts whose efforts and dedication to the wall design and construction were greatly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Lalagüe
    • 1
  • Matthew A. Lebens
    • 2
  • Inge Hoff
    • 3
  • Eivind Grøv
    • 1
  1. 1.SINTEF Building and InfrastructureTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Minnesota Department of TransportationOffice of Materials and Road ResearchMaplewoodUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Transport EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

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