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Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 49, Issue 6, pp 2099–2114 | Cite as

Control Effect of a Large Geological Discontinuity on the Seismic Response and Stability of Underground Rock Caverns: A Case Study of the Baihetan #1 Surge Chamber

  • Zhen Cui
  • Qian Sheng
  • Xianlun Leng
Original Paper

Abstract

In this paper, the seismic stability of the #1 surge chamber of the Baihetan hydropower plant, which is influenced by a large dominating geological discontinuity [the interlayer shear weakness zone (ISWZ) C2)], is studied. An advanced, nonlinear, continuously yielding (CY) model was adopted to describe the complex mechanical properties of ISWZ C2. This model considers a power function type, normal stress dependent behavior and the progressive damage that occurred during shear tests. The applicability of the CY model is proved via a comparison with field test results and the theoretical solution. Verification work was conducted in 3DEC code to show that the 3DEC software is suitable for implementing this model. Three ground motion waveforms were utilized to conduct a seismic analysis of the #1 surge chamber after a special response spectrum matching process. The seismic analysis confirmed the control effect of ISWZ C2 on the seismic stability of the cavern. The majority of the cavern’s seismic displacement consists of elastic body movement, while the plastic deformation is relatively limited. Further, most of the deformations were caused by the contact deformation of C2. For the contact deformation of C2, the magnitude of permanent shear deformation is larger than that of the normal deformation. The magnitude of permanent shear deformation is more notable along the strike direction of C2, and the permanent normal displacement n of C2 mainly occurs along the dip direction of C2. Finally, the seismic stability of the cavern is assessed via the overload method. The seismic safety factor of the cavern is approximately 2–3.

Keywords

Underground cavern Seismic stability Structural control effect Discrete element method Continuously yielding model 

Abbreviations

\(c\)

Cohesion

\(C\)

Stress wave velocity

\(C_{\text{p}}\)

P wave velocity

\(C_{\text{s}}\)

S wave velocity

CY model

Continuously yielding model

\(d\)

Discontinuity closure in BB model

\(d_{\text{ma}}\)

Maximum allowable closure in BB model

\({\text{en}}\)

Joint normal stiffness exponent of CY model

\({\text{es}}\)

Joint shear stiffness exponent of CY model

\(f\)

Wave frequency

gal

Galileo

ISWZ

Interlayer shear weakness zone

\(K_{\text{n}}\)

Normal stiffness

\(K_{\text{s}}\)

Shear stiffness

PGA

Peak ground acceleration

PSHA

Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

\(r\)

Joint roughness parameter of CY model

\(R\)

Reflection coefficient

\(R_{\text{non}}\)

Reflection coefficient by CY model

\(R_{\text{lin}}\)

Reflection coefficient by linear model

\(T_{\text{non}}\)

Transmission coefficient by CY model

\(T_{\text{lin}}\)

Transmission coefficient by linear model

\(Z\)

Impedance of the rock mass medium

\(a_{\text{n}}\) and \(K_{\text{ni}}\)

Joint initial normal stiffness of CY model

\(a_{\text{s}}\) and \(K_{\text{si}}\)

Joint initial shear stiffness of CY model

\(\beta\)

Nonlinear factor in CY model, equals \(\sigma_{\text{n}}^{\text{en}}\)

\(\gamma\)

Nonlinear factor in BB model

\(\theta\)

Friction angle

\(\rho\)

Density of the rock mass

\(\emptyset\)

Joint initial friction angle of CY model

\(\emptyset_{\text{m}}\)

Effective friction angle of CY model

\(\omega\)

Angular wave frequency

\(\varDelta \sigma_{\text{n}}\)

Incremental normal contact stress

\(\varDelta u_{\text{n}}\)

Incremental normal contact displacement

\(\varDelta \tau\)

Incremental shear contact stress

\(\varDelta u_{\text{s}}\)

Incremental shear contact displacement

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB057905), the National Natural Science Foundation of China, (Nos. 51409263, 11472292).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Rock and Soil MechanicsChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.PowerChina Huadong Engineering Corporation LimitedHangzhouChina

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