Advertisement

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 1369–1388 | Cite as

Borehole Breakouts Induced in Arkosic Sandstones and a Discrete Element Analysis

  • H. Lee
  • T. Moon
  • B. C. Haimson
Original Paper

Abstract

A series of laboratory drilling experiments were conducted on two arkosic sandstones (Tenino and Tablerock) under polyaxial far-field stress conditions (σ h  ≠ σ H  ≠ σ v ). V-shaped breakouts, aligned with the σ h direction and revealing stress-dependent dimensions (width and length), were observed in the sandstones. The microscale damage pattern leading to the breakouts, however, is different between the two, which is attributed to the difference in their cementation. The dominant micromechanism in Tenino sandstone is intergranular microcracking occurring in clay minerals filling the spaces between clastic grains. On the other hand, intra- and transgranular microcracking taking place in the grain itself prevails in Tablerock sandstone. To capture the grain-scale damage and reproduce the failure localization observed around the borehole in the laboratory, we used a discrete element (DE) model in which a grain breakage algorithm was implemented. The microparameters needed in the numerical model were calibrated by running material tests and comparing the macroscopic responses of the model to the ones measured in the laboratory. It is shown that DE modeling is capable of simulating the microscale damage of the rock and replicating the localized damage zone observed in the laboratory. In addition, the numerically induced breakout width is determined at a very early stage of the damage localization and is not altered for the rest of the failure process.

Keywords

Borehole breakout In situ stress Wellbore stability Discrete element method Microcracks Grain breakage 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to the US Department of Energy for supporting this research under the USDOE Grant DE-FG02-98ER14850. This research was also partially supported by the Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). We appreciate the comments and suggestions by the anonymous reviewers.

References

  1. Barrash W, Buu T, Gillerman V (1997) Field trip guide to the geology of the Boise Valley, 32nd symposium on engineering geology and geotechnical engineering, Boise, Idaho, p 6Google Scholar
  2. Bell JS, Gough DI (1979) Northeast-southwest compressive stress in Alberta: evidence from oil wells. Earth Planet Sci Lett 45:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boutt DF, McPherson BJOL (2002) Simulation of sedimentary rock deformation: lab-scale model calibration and parameterization. Geophys Res Lett 29(4):1054. doi: 10.1029/2001GL013987 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brudy M, Zoback MD, Fuchs K, Rummel F, Baumgartner JE (1997) Estimation of the complete stress tensor to 8 km depth in the KTB scientific drill holes: implications for crustal strength. J Geophys Res 102:18453–18475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruno MS, Nelson RB (1991) Microstructural analysis of the inelastic behavior sedimentary rock. Mech Mater 12:95–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cerasi P, Papamichos E, Stenebraten JF (2005) Quantitative sand-production prediction: friction-dominated flow model. SPE Latin American and Caribbean petroleum engineering conference, Rio de Janeiro, SPE 94791Google Scholar
  7. Cook BK, Lee MY, DiGiovanni AA, Bronowski DR, Perkins ED, Williams JR (2004) Discrete element modeling applied to laboratory simulation of near-wellbore mechanics. Int J Geomech 4:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Couroyer C, Ning Z, Ghadiri M (2000) Distinct element analysis of bulk crushing: effect of particle properties and loading rate. Powder Technol 109:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cuss RJ, Rutter EH, Holloway RF (2003) Experimental observations of the mechanics of borehole failure in porous sandstone. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 40:747–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ewy RT, Cook NGW (1990) Deformation and fracture around cylindrical opening in rock—I. Observations and analysis of deformations; II. Initiation, growth and interaction of fractures. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 27:87–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fakhimi A, Villegas T (2007) Application of dimensional analysis in calibration of a discrete element model for rock deformation and fracture. Rock Mech Rock Eng 40(2):193–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fakhimi A, Carvalho F, Ishida T, Labuz JF (2002) Simulation of failure around a circular opening in rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 39:507–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haimson BC (2007) Micromechanisms of borehole instability leading to breakouts in rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44:157–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haimson BC, Chang C (2002) True triaxial strength of the KTB amphibolite under borehole wall conditions and its use to estimate the maximum horizontal in situ stress. J Geophys Res 107:2257–2270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haimson BC, Herrick CG (1985) In situ stress evaluation from borehole breakouts—experimental studies, research and engineering application in rock mass. In: Proceedings of 26th US Symposium on Rock Mech., Rapid City, AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 1207–1218Google Scholar
  16. Haimson BC, Herrick CG (1986) Borehole breakouts—a new tool for estimating in situ stress? Rock stress and rock stress measurement. In: Stephansson O, Stockholm (eds) Proceedings of international symposium on rock stress and rock stress measurements, Centek Publications, Luiea, pp 271–280Google Scholar
  17. Haimson BC, Herrick CG (1989) Borehole breakouts and in situ stress. In: Rowley JC (ed) Proceedings of drilling symposium 1989, 12th annual energy-sources technical conference and exhibit, Houston, Am Soc Mech Eng, New York, pp 17–22Google Scholar
  18. Haimson BC, Kovacich J (2003) Borehole instability in high-porosity Berea sandstone and factors affecting dimensions and shape of fracture-like breakouts. Eng Geol 69:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haimson BC, Lee H (2004) Borehole breakouts and compaction bands in two high-porosity sandstones. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:287–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haimson BC, Song I (1993) Laboratory study of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 30:1047–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haimson BC, Song I (1998) Borehole breakouts in Berea sandstone: two porosity-dependent distinct shapes and mechanism of formation, SPE/ISRM rock mechanics in petroleum engineering, society of petroleum engineering, Richardson, TX, pp 229–238Google Scholar
  22. Hazzard JF, Young RP, Maxwell SC (2000) Micromechanical modeling of cracking and failure in brittle rocks. J Geophys Res 105:16683–16697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Herrick CG, Haimson BC (1994) Modeling of episodic failure leading to borehole breakouts in Alabama limesonte. In: Nelson P, Laubach S (eds) Proceedings of the 1st north american rock mechanics symposium, Rock mechanics: models and measurements, Balkema, Austin, Rotterdam, pp 217–224Google Scholar
  24. Hickman SH, Zoback MD (2004) Stress orientations and magnitudes in the SAFOD pilot hole. Geophys Res Lett 31:L15S12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hickman SH, Healy JH, Zoback MD (1985) In situ stress, natural fracture distribution and borehole elongation in Auburn geothermal well, Auburn, New York. J Geophys Res 90:5497–5512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoek E, Brown ET (1980) Underground excavations in rock. Monograph, The institute of mining and metallurgy, London 527 p Google Scholar
  27. Hutchinson CS (1974) Laboratory handbook of petrographic techniques. Willey, New York, p 527Google Scholar
  28. Itasca Consulting Group Inc (2008) PHC2D user’s manualsGoogle Scholar
  29. Klaetsch AR, Haimson BC (2002) Porosity-dependent fracture-like breakouts in St. Peter sandstone. In: Hammah R et al (eds) Mining and tunneling innovation and opportunity, pp 1365–1371Google Scholar
  30. Lee H (2005) Borehole breakouts in arkosic sandstones and quartz-rich sandstone. PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin-MadisonGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee M, Haimson BC (1993) Laboratory study of borehole breakouts in Lac du Bonnet granite: a case of extensile failure mechanism. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 30:1839–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li L, Holt RM (2002) Particle scale reservoir mechanics. Oil and gas science and technology. Rev IFP 57:525–538Google Scholar
  33. Li L, Papamichos E, Cerasi P (2006) Investigation of sand production mechanisms using DEM with fluid flow. EUROCK 2006. In: Cotthem V, Charlier, Thimus and Tshibangu (eds) Multiphysics coupling and long term behaviour in rock mechanics, pp 241–247Google Scholar
  34. Marketos G, Bolton MD (2009) Compaction bands simulated in Discrete element models. J Struct Geol 31:479–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mastin RJ (1984) Development of borehole breakouts in sandstone. MS Thesis, Stanford University, Palo Alto, p 101Google Scholar
  36. Meier T, Rybacki E, Reinicke A, Dresen G (2013) Influence of borehole diameter on the formation of borehole breakouts in black shale. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 62:74–85Google Scholar
  37. Moos D, Zoback MD (1990) Utilization of observations of well bore breakouts to constrain the orientation and magnitude of crustal stress: applications to continental, Deep Sea Drilling Project, and Ocean Drilling Program boreholes. J Geophy Res 95:9305–9325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morin RH, Newmark RL, Barton CA, Anderson RN (1990) State of lithospheric stress and borehole stability at deep sea drilling project site 504B, Eastern Equatorial Pacific. J Geophy Res 95:9293–9303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Papamichos E (1999) Sand production and well productivity in conventional reservoirs. In: Amadei, Kranz, Scott and Smeallie (eds) Rock mechanics for industry, Balkema Rotterdam, pp 209–215Google Scholar
  40. Papamichos E, Tronvoll J, Skjaerstein A, Unander TE (2010) Hole stability of red wildmoor sandstone under anisotropic stresses and sand production criterion. J Pet Sci Eng 72:78–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pettijohn DA, Potter PE, Siever R (1987) Sand and sandstone. Springer, New York, p 553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Plumb RA, Cox JW (1987) Stress directions in Eastern North America determined to 4.5 km from borehole elongation measurements. J Geophy Res 92:4805–4816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Potyondy DO, Cundall PA (2004) A bonded-particle model for rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:1329–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Potyondy DO, Cundall PA, Lee C (1996) Modeling rock using bonded assemblies of circular particles. Proc N Am Rock Mech Symp 2:1937–1944Google Scholar
  45. Prothero DR, Schwab F (1996) Sedimentary geology: an introduction to sedimentary rocks and stratigraphy. Freeman, New York, p 575Google Scholar
  46. Rahmati H (2013) Micromechanical study of borehole breakout mechanism. PhD thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, p 143Google Scholar
  47. Shamir G, Zoback MD (1992) Stress orientation profile to 3.5 km depth near the San Andreas Fault at Cajonpas, California. J Geophy Res 97:5059–5080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Song I (1998) Borehole breakouts and core disking in Westerly granite: mechanisms of formation and relationship to in situ stress. Ph.D. thesis, University of WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  49. Takei M, Kusakabe O, Hayashi T (2001) Time-dependent behavior of crushable materials in one-dimensional compression tests. Soils Found 41:97–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tronvoll J, Fjaer E (1994) Experimental study of sand production from perforation cavites. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 31:393–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tsoungui O, Vallet D, Charmet JC (1999) Numerical model of crushing of grains inside two-dimensional granular materials. Power Technol 105:190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tucker ME (1991) Sedimentary petrology: an introduction to the origin of sedimentary rocks. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, p 260Google Scholar
  53. Van den Hoek PJ (2001) Prediction of different types of cavity failure using bifurcation theory. Rock mechanics in the national interest. In: Proceedings of 38th rock mechanical symposium, AA Balkema Rotterdam, pp 45–52Google Scholar
  54. Vernik L, Zoback MD (1992) Estimation of maximum horizontal principal stress magnitude from stress-induced well bore breakouts in the Cajon Pass scientific research borehole. J Geophys Res 97:5109–5119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang B, Chen Y, Wong TF (2008) A discrete element model for the development of compaction localization in granular rock. J Geophys Res 113(1–17):B03202. doi: 10.1029/2006JB004501 Google Scholar
  56. Wood SH, Bumham WL (1987) Geologic framework of the Boise warm springs geothermal area, Idaho. In: Beus SS (ed) Rock mountain section of the Geological Society of America centennial field guide, Geological Society of American Boulder, pp 117–122Google Scholar
  57. Yoon J (2007) Application of experimental design and optimization to PFC model calibration in uniaxial compression simulation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44(6):871–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zheng Z, Kemeny J, Cook NGW (1989) Analysis of borehole breakouts. J Geophys Res 94:7171–7182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zoback MD, Moose D, Mastin L, Anderson RN (1985) Well-bore breakouts and in situ stress. J Geophys Res 90:5523–5538CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological Environmental DivisionKIGAMDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Geotechnical and Tunneling DivisionHNTBNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Material Science and EngineeringUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations