Advertisement

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 651–667 | Cite as

Sensitivity Testing of the Newly Developed Elliptical Fitting Method for the Measurement of Convergence in Tunnels and Shafts

  • Danielle Delaloye
  • Mark S. Diederichs
  • Gabriel Walton
  • Jean Hutchinson
Original Paper

Abstract

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has become more widely used in the geotechnical community as its number of applications increases. It has been shown to be useful in tunneling for applications such as rockmass characterization and discontinuity measurement. LiDAR data can also be used to measure deformation in tunnels, but before a comprehensive methodology can be developed, the accuracy issues associated with scanning must be fully understood. Once the accuracy issues associated with LiDAR are well understood, any analysis technique that uses LiDAR data must be tested to ensure that the determined accuracy issues have minimal impact on the results of the analysis. To prove the usefulness of the newly developed elliptical fitting method for the measurement of convergence in tunnels and shafts proposed by Delaloye et al. (Eurock 2012), a comprehensive analysis of accuracy issues associated with LiDAR scanning was conducted and then a sensitivity test of the convergence measurement technique was completed. The results of the analysis show that using the statistical techniques built into the elliptical fit analysis and LiDAR profile analysis, levels of real change (convergence), within the nominal level of random and systematic noise included in the data, can be measured with confidence. Furthermore, the new analysis is robust enough to handle large amounts of occlusion or missing perimeter coverage within data sets.

Keywords

LiDAR Tunnel monitoring Deformation analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by NSERC, CEMI and by PREA.

References

  1. Besl PJ, McKay ND (1992) A method for registration of 3-D shapes. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 14(2):239–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boehler W, Bordas Vincent M, Marbs A (2003) Investigating laser scanner accuracy. In: The XIXth CIPA symposium, Antaylya, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  3. Decker JB, Dove JE (2008) Laser scanning techniques in Devil’s Slide tunnels. In: Tononm F (ed.) Laser and photogrammetric methods for rock tunnel characterization workshop. 42nd US rock mechanics symposium, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  4. Delaloye D, Hutchinson J, Diederichs M (2012) Using terrestrial lidar for tunnel deformation monitoring in circular tunnels and shafts. Eurock 2012. Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  5. Fekete S, Diederichs M (2012) Integration of 3-dimensional laser scanning with discontinuum modelling for stability analysis of tunnels in blocky rockmasses. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.08.003.14pgs Google Scholar
  6. Fekete S, Diederichs M, Lato M (2010) Geotechnical and operational applications for 3-dimen. laser scanning in drill and blast tunnels. J Tunn Undergr Space Technol 25(5):614–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fitzgibbon AW, Pilu M, Fisher RB (1996) Direct least squares fitting of ellipses. In: THE 13th international conference on pattern recognition, Los Alamitos, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. InnovMetric (2011) PolyWorks V11.0.28. InnovMetric, QuebecGoogle Scholar
  9. Jacobs G (2009) Accuracy of scan points. In: Professional Surveyor Magazine, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  10. Kavvadas M (2005) Monitoring ground deformation in tunnelling: current practice in transportation tunnels. Eng Geol 79(1–2):93–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kontagianni V, Stiros S (2003) Tunnel monitoring during the excavation phase: 3-D kinematic analysis based on geodetic data. In: 11th FIG symposium on deformation measurements, Santorini, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  12. Lato M, Diederichs MS, Hutchinson DJ, Harrap R (2009) Optimization of LiDAR scanning and processing for automated structural evaluation of discontinuities in rockmasses. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46(1):194–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Leica Geosystems (2007) Leica HDS6000 User Manual. Heerbrug, Switzerland Google Scholar
  14. Lemy F, Yong S, Schulz T (2006) A case study of monitoring tunnel wall displacement using laser scanning technology. In: The 10th IAEG International Congress, IAEG2006, Nottingham, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Lichti DD (2003) A resolution measure for terrestrial laser scanners. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci 34:1–6Google Scholar
  16. Lichti DD, Jamtsho S (2006) Angular resolution of terrestrial laser scanners. Photogramm Rec 21(114):141–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lindenberg R, Pfeifer N, Rabbani T (2005) Accuracy analysis of the LEICA HDS3000 and feasibility of tunnel deformation monitoring. In: The workshop “laser scanning 2005”Google Scholar
  18. Schubert W (2008) The development of the observational method. Geomechanik und Tunnelbau. doi: 10.1002/geot.200800035 Google Scholar
  19. Soudarissanane S, van Ree J, Bucksch A, Lindenberg R (2007) Error budget of terrestrial laser scanning: influence of the incidence angle on the scan quality. In: The 3D-NordOst, 10 Anwendungsbezongener workshop zur Erfassung, Modelleirung, Verarbeitung und Auswertung von 3D-Daten, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  20. Stiros S, Kontogianni V (2009) Mean deformation tensor and mean deformation ellipse of an excavated tunnel section. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46(8):1306–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Terzaghi K (1942) Shield tunnels for Chicago subway. Boston Soc Civil Eng 29(3):163–210Google Scholar
  22. Van Gosliga R, Lindenbergh R, Pfeifer N (2006) Deformation analysis of a bored tunnel by means of terrestrial laser scanning. In: Maas H-G, Schneider D (eds) Image engineering and vision metrology. ISPRS Commission, vol 36, pp 167–172Google Scholar
  23. Voge M, Lato MJ, Diederichs MS (2013) Automated rockmass discontinuity mapping from 3-dimensional surface data. Eng Geol. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.07.008 Google Scholar
  24. Wittke W, Pierau B, Erichsen C (2006) New Austrian tunneling method (NATM)—stability analysis and design. WBI, EssenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle Delaloye
    • 1
  • Mark S. Diederichs
    • 1
  • Gabriel Walton
    • 1
  • Jean Hutchinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological Sciences and Geological EngineeringQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations