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Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2199–2209 | Cite as

Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

  • Chuanliang Yan
  • Jingen Deng
  • Baohua Yu
  • Wenliang Li
  • Zijian Chen
  • Lianbo Hu
  • Yang Li
Original Paper

Abstract

In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

Keywords

High temperature Thermal effect Rock mechanics Borehole stability Drilling fluid 

List of Symbols

AA

Cross-sectional area of the annulus

AD

Cross-sectional area of the drill string

C

Cohesive force of the formation

CP

Specific heat of drilling fluid

CPf

Specific heat of the formation

E

Young’s modulus

f

Formation porosity

Kf

Heat conduction coefficient of the formation

hf

Coefficient of heat convection of the borehole wall

Pcr

Collapse pressure

Pf

Fracture pressure

Pp

Pore pressure

rB

Radius of the borehole

rD

Radius of the drill string

St

Tensile strength of the formation

TA

Temperature of the drilling fluid in the drill string

t

Mud circulating time

T

Temperature

T0

Far-field temperature

Tb

Temperature on the borehole wall

TD

Drilling fluid temperature in the annulus

Tf

Formation temperature

Tm

Room temperature

U

Coefficient of overall heat convection of the fluid–solid interface

UCSc

Uniaxial compressive strength

UCSco

Uniaxial compressive strength under room temperature

v

Poisson’s ratio

VA

Flow velocity of fluid in the annulus

VD

Flow velocity of fluid in the drill string

σH

Maximum horizontal in situ stress

σh

Minimum horizontal in situ stress

σv

Overburden in situ stress

σr

Radial stress around the borehole

σz

Axial stress around the borehole

σθ

Tangential stress around the borehole

σrT

Radial thermal stress around the borehole

σzT

Axial thermal stress around the borehole

σθT

Tangential thermal stress around the borehole

ρ

Drilling fluid density

ρf

Formation density

α

Biot’s coefficient

αm

Thermal expansion coefficient

\( \phi \)

Internal friction angle of the formation

ɛa

Axial strain

ɛr

Radial strain

ɛv

Thermal expansion strain

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is financially supported by the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 51221003), the National Natural Science Foundation Project of China (Grant No.51174219), and the National Oil and Gas Major Project of China (Grant Nos. 2011ZX05009-005 and 2011ZX05026-001-01).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chuanliang Yan
    • 1
  • Jingen Deng
    • 1
  • Baohua Yu
    • 1
  • Wenliang Li
    • 1
  • Zijian Chen
    • 1
  • Lianbo Hu
    • 1
  • Yang Li
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and ProspectingChina University of Petroleum, BeijingBeijingChina

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