Advertisement

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 1073–1090 | Cite as

The Impact of Surface Charge on the Mechanical Behavior of High-Porosity Chalk

  • M. Megawati
  • A. Hiorth
  • M. V. Madland
Original Paper

Abstract

We present rock mechanical test results and analytical calculations which demonstrate that a negative surface charge, resulting from sulfate adsorption from the pore water, impacts the rock mechanical behavior of high-porosity chalk. Na2SO4 brine flooded into chalk cores at 130 °C results in significantly reduced bulk modulus and yield point compared with that of NaCl brine at the same conditions. The experimental results have been interpreted using a surface complexation model combined with the Gouy-Chapman theory to describe the double layer. The calculated sulfate adsorption agrees well with the measured data. A sulfate adsorption of about 0.3 μmol/m2 and 0.7–1 μmol/m2 was measured at 50 and 130 °C, respectively. Relative to a total sites of 5 sites/nm2 these values correspond to an occupation of 4 % and 8–13 % which sufficiently explains the negative charging of the calcite surfaces. The interaction between charged surfaces specifically in the weak overlaps of electrical double layer gives rise to the total disjoining pressure in granular contacts. The net repulsive forces act as normal forces in the grains vicinity, counteracting the cohesive forces and enhance pore collapse failure during isotropic loading, which we argue to account for the reduced yield and bulk modulus of chalk cores. The effect of disjoining pressure is also assessed at different sulfate concentrations in aqueous solution, temperatures, as well as ionic strength of solution; all together remarkably reproduce similar trends as observed in the mechanical properties.

Keywords

Surface charge Yield Bulk modulus Mechanics Chalk Adsorption Sulfate Disjoining pressure 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the Norwegian Research Council, BP Norge and the Valhall co-venturers, including Hess Norge AS, and Total E&P Norge AS, ConocoPhillips and the Ekofisk co-venturers, including TOTAL, ENI, Statoil and Petoro for financial support. Nicholas Thompson is acknowledged for checking the language. We also thank Marc Hettema for fruitful discussion. Giovanni Barla and two anonymous reviewers are kindly acknowledged for constructive comments.

References

  1. Ali N, Singh P, Peng C, Shiralkal G, Moschovidis Z, Baack W (1994) Injection-above-parting-pressure-waterflood pilot, valhall field, Norway. SPE Reservoir Engineering, SPE 22893Google Scholar
  2. Andreassen K, Fabricius I (2011) Biot critical frequency applied to description of failure and yield of highly porous chalk with different pore fluids. Geophysics 75: E205–E213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanton TL (1981) Deformation of chalk under confining pressure and pore pressure. SPE J 21(1):43–50. doi: 10.2118/8076-PA Google Scholar
  4. Bolan NS, Syers JK, Tillman RW (1986) Ionic strength effects on surface charge and adsorption of phosphate and sulfate by soils. J Soil Sci 37:379–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borkovec M, Westall J (1983) Solution of the poisson-boltzmann equation for surface excesses of ions in the diffuse layer at the oxide-electrolyte interface. J Electroanal Chem 150:325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bottjer DJ (1986) Campanian-maastrichtian chalks of southwestern arkansas: Petrology, paleoenvironments and comparison with other North American and European chalks. Cretac Res 7:161–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charlet L, Dise N, Stumm W (1993) Sulfate adsorption on a variable charge soil and on reference minerals. Agric Ecosyst Environ 47:87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christian T, Currie J, Lantz T, Rismyhr O, Snow S (1993) Reservoir management at ekofisk field. The 68th SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, 3–6 Oct., SPE 26623Google Scholar
  9. Davis J, Kent D (1990) Surface complexation modelling in aqueous geochemistry. Rev Miner Geochem 23:177–260Google Scholar
  10. Davis JA, Leckie J (1980) Surface ionization and complexation at the oxide/water interface iii. adsorption of anions. J Colloid Interface Sci 74:32–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dzombak DA, Morel FMM (1990) Surface complexation modelling. Hydrous ferric oxide. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  12. Fjar E, Holt RM, Horsrud P, Raaen AM, Risnes R (2008) Petroleum related rock mechanics, 2nd edn, Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Fukushi K, Sverjensky DA (2007) A surface complexation model for sulfate and selenate on iron oxides consistent with spectroscopic and theoretical molecular evidence. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guéguen Y, Bouteca M (1997) Mechanics of fluid-saturated rocks volume 89 of International Geophysics Series. Elsevier Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Hachiya K, Sasaki M, Ikeda T, Mikami N, Yasunaga T (1984a) Static and kinetic studies of adsorption-desorption of metal ions on a γ−al 2 O 3 surface. ii. kinetic study by means of pressure-jump technique. J Phys Chem 88:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hachiya K, Sasaki M, Saruta Y, Mikami N, Yasunaga T (1984b) Static and kinetic studies of adsorption-desorption of metal ions on a γ−al 2 O 3 surface. i. static study of adsorption-desorption. J Phys Chem 88:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayes KF, Roe AL, Brown JGE, Hodgson KO, Leckie JO, Parks GA (1987) In situ x-ray adsorption study of surface complexes : 33 selenium oxyanions on α-feooh. Sci Agric 238:783–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heggheim T, Madland MV, Risnes R, Austad T (2005) A chemical induced enhanced weakening of chalk by seawater. J Pet Sci Eng 46:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hingston FJ, Posner AM, Quirk JP (1972) Anion adsorption by goethite and gibbsite. i. the role of the proton in determining adsorption envelopes. J Soil Sci 23:177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hiorth A, Cathles LM, Madland MV (2010) The impact of pore water chemistry on carbonate surface charge and oil wettability. Transp Porous Media. doi: 10.1007/s11242-010-9543-6
  21. Hjuler ML (2007) Diagenesis of upper cretaceous onshore and offshore chalk from the North Sea area. Ph.D. thesis Institute of Environment and Resources, Technical University of DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  22. Ishido T, Mizutani T (1980) Relationship between fracture strength of rocks and ζ-potential. Tectonophysics 67:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Israelachvili J (1985) Intermolecular and surface forces. Academic Press, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  24. Karoussi O, Hamouda A (2007) Imbibition of sulfate and magnesium ions into carbonate rocks at elevated temperatures and their influence on wettability alteration and oil recovery. Energy Fuels 21:2138–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Korsnes R, Strand S, Hoff, Pedersen T, Madland M, Austad T (2006) Does the chemical interaction between seawater and chalk affect the mechanical properties of chalk? In: Cottheim AV, Charlier R, Thimus JF, Tshibangu JP (eds) Multiphysics coupling and long term behaviour in rock mechanics. pp 427–434. ISBN 0 415 41001 0Google Scholar
  26. Korsnes R, Wersland E, Madland M, Austad T (2008a) Anisotropy in chalk studied by rock mechanics. J Pet Sci Eng 60:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Korsnes RI, Madland MV, Austad T, Haver S, Rosland G (2008b) The effects of temperature on the water weakening of chalk by seawater. J Pet Sci Eng 60:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liang BH, Hueckel T (2007) Creep of saturated materials as a chemically enhanced rate-dependent damage process. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 31:1537–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Madland M, Finsnes A, Alkafadgi A, Risnes R, Austad T (2006) The influence of co2 gas and carbonate water on the mechanical stability of chalk. J Pet Sci Eng 51:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Madland M, Hiorth A, Omdal E, Megawati M, Hildebrand-Habel T, Kornes R, Evje S, Cathles L (2011) Chemical alteration induced by rock-fluid interaction when injecting brines in high porosity chalks. Transp Porous Media. doi: 10.1007/s11242-010-9708-3
  31. Madland MV, Hiorth A, Korsnes RI, Evje S, Cathles L (2009) Rock fluid interactions in chalk exposed to injection of seawater, MgCl2, and NaCl2 brines with equal ionic strength. EAGE-2009 A22Google Scholar
  32. Madland MV, Midtgarden K, Manafov R, Korsnes RI, Kristiansen T, Hiorth A (2008) The effect of temperature and brine composition on the mechanical strength of kansas chalk. In: International Symposium SCAGoogle Scholar
  33. Megawati M, Andersen P, Korsnes R, Hiorth H, Madland M (2011) The effect of aqueous chemistry ph on the time-dependent deformation behaviour of chalk experimental and modelling study. In: Pore2Fluid IFP Energies nouvelles Paris, Nov 16–18Google Scholar
  34. Newman GH (1983) The effect of water chemistry on the laboratory compression and permeability characteristics of some north sea chalks. SPE AIME 35(5):976–980. doi: 10.2118/10203-PA
  35. Nguyen SH, Fabricius IL (2008) Determination of carbonates by titration. Retrieved from Sediment Laboratory, Danish Technical University, LyngbyGoogle Scholar
  36. Parkhurst L, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2)—a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4259. US Department of the interior US Geological Survey, Denver. ftp://brrftp.cr.usgs.gov/pub/dlpark/geochem/unix/phreeqc/manual.pdf
  37. Pierre A, Lamarche R, Mercier R, Foissy A, Persello J (1990) Calcium as potential determining ion in aqueous calcite suspensions. J Dispers Sci Technol 11:611–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pokrovsky O, Schott J, Thomas F (1999) Dolomite surface speciation and reactivity in aquatic systems. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:3133–3143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rajan SSS (1978) Sulfate adsorbed on hydrous alumina, ligand displaced, and changes in surface charge. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rehbinder PA, Schreiner LA, Zhigach KF (1948) Hardness reducers in drilling: a physico-chemical method of facilitating mechanical destruction of rocks during drilling. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Melbourne, vol 194, p 69492585Google Scholar
  41. Revil A, Pezard PA, Glover PWJ (1999a) Streaming potential in porous media 1. theory of the zeta potential. J Geophy Res 104:20021–20031Google Scholar
  42. Revil A, Schwaeger H, Cathles LM, Manhardt PD (1999b) Streaming potential in porous media 2. theory and application to geothermal systems. J Geophy Res 104:20033–20048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Risnes R, Haghighi H, Korsnes RI, Natvik O (2003) Chalk-fluid interactions with glycol and brines. Tectonophysics 370:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Risnes R, Madland MV, Hole M, Kwabiah NK (2005) Water weakening of chalk—mechanical effects of water-glycol mixtures. J Pet Sci Eng 48:21–36Google Scholar
  45. Seto M, Nag DK, Vutukuri VS, Katsuyama K (1997) Effect of chemical additives on the strength of sandstone. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 34(3–4):280.e1–280.e11Google Scholar
  46. Stipp SLS (1999) Toward a conceptual model of calcite surface: Hydration, hydrolysis, and surface potential. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:3121–3131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Strand S, Hognesen EJ, Austad T (2006) Wettability alteration of carbonates—effects of potential determining ions ca2+ and so2- 4 and temperature. Colloids Surf A-Physicochem Eng Asp 275:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stumm W, Huang CP, Jenkins SR (1970) Specific chemical interactions affecting the stability of dispersed systems. Croat Chem Acta 42:223–244Google Scholar
  49. Van Cappelen P, Charlet L, Stumm W, Wersin P (1993) A surface complexation model of the carbonate mineral-aqueous solution interface. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:3505–3518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Westwood ARC, Macmillan NH, Kalyoncu RC (1974) Chemomechanical phenomena in hard rock drilling. Trans AIME 256:106–111Google Scholar
  51. Zangiabadi B, Korsnes R, Hildebrand-Habel T, Sutarjana I, Lian A, Madland MV (2009) Chemical water weakening of various outcrop chalks at elevated temperature. DEStech Publications Inc., Lancaster, pp 543–548Google Scholar
  52. Zhang GY, Zhang XN, Yu TR (1987) Adsorption of sulfate and fluoride by variable charge soils. J Soil Sci 38:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang PM (2006) Water-based EOR in fractured chalk—wettability and chemical additives. Ph.D. thesis Department of Petroleum, University of StavangerGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang PM, Austad T (2006) Wettability and oil recovery from carbonates: effects of temperature and potential determining ions. Colloids Surf A-Physicochem Eng Asp 279:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang PM, Tweheyo MT, Austad T (2006) Wettability alteration and improved oil recovery in chalk: the effect of calcium in the presence of sulfate. Energy Fuels 20:2056–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Petroleum EngineeringUniversity of StavangerStavangerNorway
  2. 2.International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS)StavangerNorway

Personalised recommendations