Case Histories of Four Extremely Intense Rockbursts in Deep Tunnels
In the process of excavating seven parallel tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, several extremely intense rockbursts occurred, killing and injuring construction workers and damaging several sets of equipment. Based on the characteristics and mechanisms of these rockbursts, four typical events were selected and their temporal and spatial characteristics were here described in detail. The geological conditions revealed after the rockbursts were surveyed carefully. The responses of support elements were also analyzed. The details documented in each case provide not only an important reference for understanding the development mechanisms of rockbursts but also a basis for the selection and development of rockburst prevention measures in deep hard rock tunnels.
KeywordsDeep tunnel Hard rock Rockburst Support response TBM
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 2010CB732006, 51079144, 50979104, and the National Science Foundation of Hubei Province in China under Grant No. 2010CDB10404. The work in this paper was also supported by funding from the Ertan Hydropower Development Company, Ltd., and the important pilot project (for youth talent) of knowledge innovation project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (No. KZCX2-EW-QN115). We are also grateful for the support and assistance in the headrace tunnel design and construction from the engineers at the East China Investigation and Design Institute. Special thanks go to Prof. Giovanni Barla and the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
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