Surgery Today

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 521–524 | Cite as

A novel three-dimensional print of liver vessels and tumors in hepatectomy

  • Yukio Oshiro
  • Jun Mitani
  • Toshiyuki Okada
  • Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
How to Do It


Creating a three-dimensional (3D)-printed liver model is costly, and the visibility of the inner structures is slightly hindered. We developed a novel structure that simultaneously solves both of these problems. The outer frames were set up along the liver surface. Our structure did not use the transparent loading material because this material increases the printing cost. Therefore, we were able to directly observe the inside of the structure. We performed hepatectomy using this novel 3D-printed liver model. Using this model, we were able to clearly simulate the resection line and safely perform the surgery. Our process was more cost effective, had a shorter production time, and improved the visibility than other processes. We developed a novel 3D-printed liver for hepatectomy, which made the procedure easier, reduced the production cost, and improved the visibility; this approach may be useful for future surgeries.


3-D print hepatectomy Liver model 



The authors thank Mr. Hayashi T and Maeno K of Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd., for their kind support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in association with this study.

Ethical standards

This study was approved by a Research Ethics Committee at the University of Tsukuba Hospital.


  1. 1.
    Zein NN, Hanouneh IA, Bishop PD, Samaan M, Eghtesad B, Quintini C, et al. Three-dimensional print of a liver for preoperative planning in living donor liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2013;19:1304–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Igami T, Nakamura Y, Hirose T, Ebata T, Yokoyama Y, Sugawara G, et al. Application of a three-dimensional print of a liver in hepatectomy for small tumors invisible by intraoperative ultrasonography: preliminary experience. World J Surg. 2014;38:3163–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sodian R, Weber S, Markert M, Loeff M, Lueth T, Weis FC, et al. Pediatric cardiac transplantation: three-dimensional printing of anatomic models for surgical planning of heart transplantation in patients with univentricular heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;1(36):1098–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen A, Laviv A, Berman P, Nashef R, Abu-Tair J. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:661–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katayama H, Kurokawa Y, Nakamura K, Ito H, Kanemitsu Y, Masuda N, et al. Extended Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications: Japan Clinical Oncology Group postoperative complications criteria. 2016;46:668–85.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nanashima A, Nagayasu T. Development and clinical usefulness of the liver hanging maneuver in various anatomical hepatectomy procedures. Surg Today. 2016;46:398–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yukio Oshiro
    • 1
  • Jun Mitani
    • 2
  • Toshiyuki Okada
    • 1
  • Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterological and Hepatobiliary Surgery, and Organ Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science, Graduate School of System Information EngineeringUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations