Surgery Today

, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 876–879 | Cite as

Efficacy and safety of strong acid electrolyzed water for peritoneal lavage to prevent surgical site infection in patients with perforated appendicitis

  • Akio KubotaEmail author
  • Taro Goda
  • Tomomitsu Tsuru
  • Takeo Yonekura
  • Makoto Yagi
  • Hisayoshi Kawahara
  • Akihiro Yoneda
  • Yuko Tazuke
  • Gakuto Tani
  • Tomohiro Ishii
  • Satoshi Umeda
  • Katsuhisa Hirano
Original Article



Our previous experimental study of perforated peritonitis in rats proved that peritoneal lavage with strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) has no adverse effects, reduces the bacteria count in the ascitic fluid more effectively than saline, and increases the survival rate significantly. Thus, we conducted a randomized controlled study, applying SAEW in the treatment of perforated appendicitis in children.


Forty-four patients, aged 3–14 years, were randomly divided into two groups: Group S (n = 20), in which the peritoneal cavity was lavaged with 100 ml/kg saline and the wound was washed out with 200 ml saline; and Group E (n = 24), in which the peritoneal cavity was lavaged with 100 ml/kg SAEW and the wound was washed out with 200 ml SAEW.


No adverse effect of SAEW was observed in Group E. There was no difference in the bacterial evanescence ratio of ascitic fluid after lavage between Groups S and E (11.1 and 15.8 %, respectively). A residual abscess developed in one patient from each group (5.0 and 4.2 %, respectively). The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) was significantly lower in Group E than in Group S (0 and 20 %, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no difference in the duration of pyrexia, positive C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, or hospital stay between the groups.


Peritoneal lavage and wound washing with SAEW have no adverse effects and are effective for preventing SSI.


Strong acid electrolyzed water Perforated peritonitis Surgical site infection Peritoneal lavage Bactericidal activity Hypochlorous acid Perforated appendicitis 



We thank the Functional Water Foundation (Tokyo, Japan) for providing the scientific information on strong acid electrolyzed water.

Conflict of interest

Akio Kubota and his co-authors have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akio Kubota
    • 1
    Email author
  • Taro Goda
    • 1
  • Tomomitsu Tsuru
    • 2
  • Takeo Yonekura
    • 3
  • Makoto Yagi
    • 4
  • Hisayoshi Kawahara
    • 1
  • Akihiro Yoneda
    • 1
  • Yuko Tazuke
    • 1
  • Gakuto Tani
    • 1
  • Tomohiro Ishii
    • 1
  • Satoshi Umeda
    • 1
  • Katsuhisa Hirano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric SurgeryOsaka Medical Center and Research Center for Maternal and Child HealthIzumiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric SurgerySt. Maria HospitalKurumeJapan
  3. 3.Department of Pediatric SurgeryKinki University Nara HospitalNaraJapan
  4. 4.Division of Pediatric SurgeryKinki University School of MedicineOsakaJapan

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