Alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease risk in youth with type 1 diabetes

  • Giuliana Valerio
  • Enza MozzilloEmail author
  • Eugenio Zito
  • Elena De Nitto
  • Giulio Maltoni
  • Marco Marigliano
  • Stefano Zucchini
  • Claudio Maffeis
  • Adriana Franzese
Original Article



To assess the association between alcohol consumption and/or cigarette smoking with other unhealthy behaviors and clinical cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes.


Two hundred and twenty-eight youth with type 1 diabetes (age 13–19 years) were consecutively enrolled in three Regional Pediatric Diabetes Centers in Italy. Demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle (adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern and sports participation) and laboratory parameters were compared among youth reporting isolated or combined alcohol consumption and/or cigarette smoking.


Ten percent of the youth reported alcohol consumption, 10% cigarette smoking and 6% both alcohol and cigarette use; 74% did not report alcohol or cigarette use. Compared to non-drinker non-smoker youth, smokers showed significantly higher percentages of each of the behavioral and clinical cardiovascular risk factors. Drinkers showed a significantly higher proportion of abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia and poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Alcohol consumption was independently associated with both dyslipidemia and high glycosylated hemoglobin.


Our findings emphasize the need to increase the awareness of youth with T1D about the negative impact of alcohol drinking on cardiovascular risk, since the effects of alcohol might be underestimated with respect to the well-known detrimental effects of smoking. Clustering of unhealthy lifestyle should be discouraged in type 1 diabetes youth in order to promote cardiovascular protection.


Alcohol use Cardiovascular risk Glycosylated hemoglobin Smoking Type 1 diabetes Youth 



This research was funded by “Fondo per la ricerca individuale 2016,” Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope; Fondo Linea progettuale n.7 “Tutela della maternità e promozione dell’appropriatezza del percorso nascita. Diagnosi precoce e cura delle alterazioni del metabolismo glucidico in età evolutiva,” D.C.A. n. 94 del 2013, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Federico II di Napoli.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study has been approved by the Ethics Committees of all participating centers, in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all the parents and patients prior to their inclusion in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Movement Sciences and WellbeingUniversity of Naples ParthenopeNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Translational Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, Regional Center for Pediatric DiabetesUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly
  3. 3.Department of Social SciencesUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly
  4. 4.Endocrine Unit, Department of PediatricsS. Orsola-Malpighi HospitalBolognaItaly
  5. 5.Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Unit, Regional Center for Pediatric DiabetesUniversity City Hospital of VeronaVeronaItaly

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