Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 56, Issue 9, pp 981–994 | Cite as

New imaging systems in diabetic retinopathy

  • Maria Vittoria Cicinelli
  • Michele Cavalleri
  • Maria Brambati
  • Rosangela Lattanzio
  • Francesco BandelloEmail author
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Eye Complications of Diabetes


Various imaging modalities are of significant utility in the screening, grading, treatment, and follow-up of the different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema. Color stereographic photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been the gold standard for DR imaging for years. Besides these tools, newer technologies are gaining validation and popularity, such as fundus autofluorescence and OCT angiography. Furthermore, widefield retinography and ultra-widefield retinography have been introduced for a more comprehensive evaluation of the medium-far and very-far retinal peripheries, which is crucial for the assessment of the diverse manifestations of the disease. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advancements of the imaging systems for diagnosing DR, with a focus on the newest and noninvasive diagnostic tools.


Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic macular edema OCT angiography Imaging techniques Ultra-widefield imaging 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Michele Cavalleri, Maria Brambati, Rosangela Lattanzio: declare that they have no conflict of interest. Francesco Bandello consultant for: Alcon (Fort Worth,Texas,USA), Alimera Sciences (Alpharetta, Georgia, USA), Allergan Inc (Irvine, California,USA), Farmila-Thea (Clermont-Ferrand, France), Bayer Shering-Pharma (Berlin, Germany), Bausch And Lomb (Rochester, New York, USA), Genentech (San Francisco, California, USA), Hoffmann-La-Roche (Basel, Switzerland), NovagaliPharma (Évry, France), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), Sanofi-Aventis (Paris, France), Thrombogenics (Heverlee, Belgium), Zeiss (Dublin, USA). 

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Vittoria Cicinelli
    • 1
  • Michele Cavalleri
    • 1
  • Maria Brambati
    • 1
  • Rosangela Lattanzio
    • 1
  • Francesco Bandello
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Scientific Institute Ospedale San RaffaeleUniversity Vita-SaluteMilanItaly

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