Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 54, Issue 12, pp 1143–1145 | Cite as

Maternal serum calcitriol during pregnancy and risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes

  • Ingvild M. SørensenEmail author
  • Geir Joner
  • Pål A. Jenum
  • Anne Eskild
  • Sandra R. Dahl
  • Lars C. Stene
Short Communication

Vitamin D seems to play a role in immunity at the feto-maternal interface by influencing decidual macrophages, dendritic cells, and other leukocytes [1], and maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may have long-term effects on the fetus [2]. Previously we reported that low concentrations of maternal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) during pregnancy may be related to higher risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the offspring, in a case–control study nested within nearly 30,000 pregnancies [3].

25-OH D is considered the clinical relevant marker of vitamin D status although calcitriol, or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2 D), is the active hormone binding to the vitamin D receptor. Epidemiological studies suggest that the two vitamin D metabolites may be similarly correlated with some outcomes, but differentially correlated with other outcomes such as different inflammatory markers [4]. Calcitriol is known to increase substantially in pregnancy,...



Thanks to The Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry for data on children with type 1 diabetes, and Tone Kvalvik at the Hormone laboratory, Oslo University Hospital for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D analyses.


This study was supported by grants from the South-East Regional Health Authority of Norway, the Research Unit at Women and Children’s Division at Oslo University Hospital Ullevål and by Oslo Diabetes Research Centre.

Author contributions

IMS, LCS, and GJ designed and conducted the research. IMS and LCS analyzed the data. LCS performed the statistical analysis. PAJ and AE organized the original cohort. SRD provided essential reagents. IMS and LCS wrote the article. All authors commented on the manuscript, and LCS is the guarantor of this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

Supplementary material

592_2017_1045_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (441 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 441 kb)


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    Brannon PM, Picciano MF (2011) Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation in humans. Annu Rev Nutr 31:89–115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Sørensen IM, Joner G, Jenum PA et al (2016) Vitamin D-binding protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy in mothers whose children later developed type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 32:883–890CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Srikanth P, Chun RF, Hewison M et al (2016) Associations of total and free 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D with serum markers of inflammation in older men. Osteoporos Int 27:2291–2300CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingvild M. Sørensen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Geir Joner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pål A. Jenum
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anne Eskild
    • 2
    • 4
  • Sandra R. Dahl
    • 5
  • Lars C. Stene
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Paediatric and Adolescent MedicineOslo University HospitalNydalen, OsloNorway
  2. 2.Institute of Clinical MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical MicrobiologyVestre Viken Hospital TrustOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyAkershus University HospitalOsloNorway
  5. 5.Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical BiochemistryOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  6. 6.Division of EpidemiologyNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway

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