Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 19–36

Effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on mortality and cardiovascular events: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

  • Matteo Monami
  • Ilaria Dicembrini
  • Edoardo Mannucci
Original Article

Abstract

Aims

EMPAREG OUTCOME study showed a reduction in cardiovascular events in patients treated with the sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) empagliflozin, as compared to placebo. Other drugs of the same class are currently been investigated for cardiovascular outcomes. In the meanwhile, a re-analysis of data collected in available studies can add relevant insight.

Methods

A MEDLINE search for SGLT-2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, canagliflozin, ipragliflozin, ertugliflozin, luseogliflozin) was performed, collecting all randomized trials up to November 16, 2015. All trials with a duration of treatment ≥12 weeks, enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing a SGLT2i with placebo or other comparators were included. The principal outcome was the effect of SGLT2i on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary endpoints were myocardial infarction and stroke. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval (MH-OR) was calculated.

Results

A total of 71 trials were included (31,199 and 16,088 patients in SGLT2i and comparator groups). Treatment with SGLT2i was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (MH-OR 0.70 [0.59–0.83], p < 0.001), cardiovascular mortality (MH-OR 0.43 [0.36–0.53], p < 0.001), and myocardial infarction (MH-OR 0.77 [0.63–0.94], p < 0.01), but not stroke (MH-OR 1.09 [0.86–1.38], p = 0.50), with no apparent difference across molecules (after excluding cardiovascular outcome trials).

Conclusions

Available data suggest that the beneficial action observed with empagliflozin on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in EMPAREG OUTCOME study is a class effect. The present meta-analysis showed a significantly reduction in myocardial infarction, with no increased risk of stroke.

Keywords

SGLT-2 inhibitors Cardiovascular events Mortality Meta-analysis 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DiabetologyAzienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Careggi Teaching Hospital, University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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