Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 535–541 | Cite as

Psychosocial factors not metabolic control impact the quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes in China

  • Yuanyuan Zhu
  • Anne F. Fish
  • Fan Li
  • Lin Liu
  • Qingqing LouEmail author
Original Article



Quality of life is a major focus of health care today. In published studies on patients with type 2 diabetes, findings on quality of life are mixed. Those with diabetes have chronic illness and must adhere to a complicated care regimen daily, which for many patients is challenging. This study analyzed psychosocial factors and metabolic control as potential predictors of quality of life among these patients.


A cross-sectional study of 397 patients with type 2 diabetes was conducted in a hospital in Nanjing, China. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were collected from the medical record. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Diabetes Distress Scale, and Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form were administered.


The mean score of quality of life was 67.80 ± 13.44 on a 100-point scale. General self-efficacy (β = 0.340, P < 0.001), diabetes distress (β = −0.266, P < 0.001), and diabetes empowerment ability (β = 0.207, P < 0.001) were predictors of quality of life. In contrast, other factors including HbA1c, diabetes complications, and the duration of diabetes were not associated with quality of life (P > 0.05).


Our study indicated that psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, diabetes distress, and diabetes empowerment ability are related to quality of life. Assessment and interventions aimed at reducing psychosocial problems should be applied in diabetes care.


Type 2 diabetes Quality of life Self-efficacy Diabetes distress Empowerment China 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

The study protocol was reviewed by the ethics committee of Jiangsu Province Hospital on Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine affiliated with Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine.

Human and animal rights

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients before they were included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuanyuan Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anne F. Fish
    • 4
  • Fan Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lin Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qingqing Lou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western MedicineNanjing University of Chinese MedicineNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese MedicineNanjingChina
  3. 3.Nursing CollegeNanjing University of Chinese MedicineNanjingChina
  4. 4.College of NursingUniversity of Missouri-St. Louis, Affiliated with the ISP Fellowship Support ProgramSt. LouisUSA

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