Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes and elevated body mass index
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The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and elevated BMI in the USA is poorly defined. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children with type 1 diabetes who are overweight or obese have increased frequencies of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria compared to their healthy weight peers.
We studied 11,348 children 2 to <18 years of age enrolled in T1D Exchange between September 2010 and August 2012 with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year and BMI ≥ 5th age-/sex-adjusted percentile (mean age 12 years, 49 % female, 78 % non-Hispanic White). Overweight and obesity were defined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Diagnoses of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria were obtained from medical records. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with weight status.
Of the 11,348 participants, 22 % were overweight and 14 % obese. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were diagnosed in 1.0 % and 3.8 % of participants, respectively; micro-/macroalbuminuria was diagnosed in 3.8 % of participants with available data (n = 7,401). The odds of either hypertension or dyslipidemia were higher in obese than healthy weight participants [OR 3.5, 99 % confidence interval (CI) 2.0–6.1 and 2.2, 99 % CI 1.6–3.1, respectively]. Obese participants tended to be diagnosed with micro-/macroalbuminuria less often than healthy weight participants (OR 0.6, 99 % CI 0.4–1.0).
Obese children with type 1 diabetes have a higher prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia than healthy weight children with type 1 diabetes. The possible association of obesity with lower micro-/macroalbuminuria rates warrants further investigation.
KeywordsObesity Overweight BMI Epidemiology Hypertension Dyslipidemia Micro-albuminuria
Type 1 diabetes
Body mass index
Self-monitoring of blood glucose
This work was supported through the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust.
Conflict of interest
The authors do not have any conflict of interest.
This human study has been reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Human and Animal Rights disclosure
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.
Informed Consent disclosure
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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