Body composition changes and cardiometabolic benefits of a balanced Italian Mediterranean Diet in obese patients with metabolic syndrome
- 1.2k Downloads
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alteration associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality than the single alterations alone. The Italian Mediterranean Diet (IMD) can exert a positive effect on cardiovascular risk and related morbidity and mortality. The aim was to evaluate the benefits of dietary intervention based on a typical IMD on body composition, cardiometabolic changes and reduction in cardiovascular disease in patients with MS. Eighty White Italian subjects with MS were prescribed a balanced hypocaloric IMD. We investigated dietary habits and impact of the diet on health status, blood biochemical markers, anthropometric measurements and body composition during a 6-month follow-up period. Body composition, fat mass and distribution were assessed by Dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adherence to the IMD led to a decrease in body weight (102.59 ± 16.82 to 92.39 ± 15.94 kg, p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (38.57 ± 6.94 to 35.10 ± 6.76, <0.001) and waist circumference (112.23 ± 12.55 vs 92.42 ± 18.17 cm, p < 0.001). A significant loss of total body fat especially in waist region was observed. The MS was resolved in 52 % of the patients. Significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose occurred. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was reduced from 128.74 ± 33.18 to 108.76 ± 38.61 mg/dl (p < 0.001), triglycerides from 169.81 ± 80.80 to 131.02 ± 63.88 mg/dl (p < 0.001). The present results suggest that a dietary intervention based on a typical IMD effectively promotes weight loss and reduces the growing burden of cardiovascular risk factors that typifies patients with MS.
KeywordsItalian Mediterranean Diet Body composition Metabolic syndrome Cardiovascular disease
We acknowledge all Italian Mediterranean Diet Study Group, composed by Antonino De Lorenzo, Laura Di Renzo, Leonardo Iacopino, Francesca Sarlo, Luigi Petramala, Domenico Giovanni Della Rocca, Mariagiovanna Rizzo, Emidio Domino, Alberto Carraro, Nicoletta Del Duca, Simona Giglio, Valentina Fondacaro, Roberto Valente, Fabrizio Spataro, Maria Rosaria Lentini, Antonella Pellegrino, Maria Francesca Vidiri, Giuseppe Fortugno, Sara Calamusa, Marta Piazzolla, Federica Fabiocchi, Alessia Bianchi, Gioacchino Paci, Giovanna Maria Paola Tonini.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.World Health Organization (2009) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- 2.Wang YC, McPherson K, Marsh T, Gortmaker SL, Brown M. (2011) Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet. 27; 378 (9793): 815–825Google Scholar
- 7.Panagiotakos DB, Polychronopoulos E (2005) The role of Mediterranean diet in the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome; converting epidemiology to clinical practice. Lipids Health Dis 12:4–7Google Scholar
- 11.Expert Panel on Detection (2001) Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285(19):2486–2497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Rasmussen BM, Vessby B, Uusitupa M & the KANWU Study Group. (2006). Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-3 fatty acids on BP in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr; 83: 221–226Google Scholar
- 36.Carr DB, Utzschneider KM, Hull RL et al. Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2004; 53b(8): 2087–2094Google Scholar
- 39.Cameron AJ, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2004; 33: 351–375.] but indicate that between 13 and 30% of people in developing countriesGoogle Scholar
- 40.Mohan V, Deepa M (2006) The metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Diabet Voice 51:15–17Google Scholar
- 43.Dunkley AJ, Charles K, Gray LJ, Camosso-Stefinovic J, Davies MJ, Khunti K (2012) Effectiveness of interventions for reducing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in people with metabolic syndrome: systematic review and mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. Diabet Obes Metabol 14:616–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar